ایالات متحده آمریکا
ایالات متّحدهٔ آمریکا (به انگلیسی: The United States of America) (با نماد اختصاری USA) یا آمریکا، کشوری در آمریکای شمالی، و به پایتختی شهر واشینگتن، دی. سی. است. آمریکا سومین کشور پرجمعیت دنیا و سومین کشور پهناور جهان است، و از لحاظ نژادی و گوناگونیِ مردم، متنوعترین کشور جهان شناخته میشود. آمریکا با تولید ناخالص داخلی بیش از ۱۶٬۸ تریلیون دلار در سال، ۲۴٪ تولید ناخالص جهان و ۱۹٪ قدرت خرید جهان، بزرگترین اقتصاد در میان کشورهای جهان را داراست.
کشور آمریکا از شرق با اقیانوس اطلس، از غرب با اقیانوس آرام، از شمال با کشور کانادا، و از جنوب با کشور مکزیک همسایه است. این کشور از راه پایگاه دریایی گوانتانامو نیز مرز مشترک اندکی با کوبا دارد. آمریکا همچنین از طریق آلاسکا با روسیه مرز آبی دارد. به علاوه، مجموعهای از جزیرهها، ناحیهها، و مناطق متعلق به آمریکا که در سراسر جهان پراکنده شدهاند.
ایالات متحده آمریکا پس از حضور در جنگ جهانی اول و جنگ جهانی دوم، قدرت اثرگذاری خود در جهان را گسترش داد. آمریکا به عضویت دائم شورای امنیت سازمان ملل درآمدهاست و از بنیانگذاران پیمان نظامی ناتو محسوب میشود. و پس از فروپاشی شوروی و پایان جنگ سرد بهعنوان یک ابرقدرت منحصربهفرد درآمد. شهروند ایالات متحدهٔ آمریکا را معمولاً «آمریکایی» مینامند.
نام «آمریکا» اقتباسی است از نام آمریگو وسپوچی جهانگرد و کاشف ایتالیایی که توسط یک نقشهساز آلمانی در سال ۱۵۰۷ میلادی ثبت شد. «ایالات متحده آمریکا» نیز در مدارک رسمی نخستین بار در یازدهم ژوئیه سال ۱۷۷۸ میلادی استفاده شد و از آن زمان تاکنون جاری بوده است.
این کشور با نامهای دیگری مانند ایالات متحدهٔ آمریکا، (اِمریکا یا آمریکا) و ایالات متحده خوانده میشود. در فارسی در گذشته به آن (بطور عامیانه) ینگه دنیا و در نوشتهها، اتازونی (برگرفته از واژهٔ فرانسوی États-Unis، به معنای ایالتهای متحد) نیز میگفتند. «ینگی دنیا» برگرفته از ترکی عثمانی و بهمعنی «دنیای جدید» است.[نیازمند منبع]
ایالات متحدهٔ آمریکا در نیمکرهٔ غربی زمین، و در شمال قارهٔ آمریکا واقع است. این کشور از ۴۸ ایالت همجوار، و دو ایالت جدا از دیگران (شبه جزیره آلاسکا در شمال شرق قارهٔ آمریکا و مجمعالجزایر هاوایی در اقیانوس آرام) تشکیل شدهاست. همچنین، در دو منطقهٔ حوزهٔ دریای کارائیب، و نیز بخشهایی از اقیانوس آرام، جزایر کوچک و پراکندهای وجود دارند که قلمرو آمریکا محسوب میشوند، ولی به گونهای خودگردان اداره میشوند (مانند پورتو ریکو).
قسمتی از رشته کوههای راکی در غرب آمریکا قرار گرفتهاست که بزرگترین قله آن در ایالت کلرادو قرار دارد. مرتفعترین نقطه در آمریکا قله کوه مک کینلی (۶۱۹۴ متر) در آلاسکا میباشد. در ۴۸ ایالت پایین نیز مرتفعترین قله بر فراز کوه ویتنی (۴۴۲۱ متر) در کالیفرنیا قرار دارد. رودخانه میسیسیپی بزرگترین و مهمترین رودخانه آمریکای شمالی و چهارمین رودخانه طولانی جهان در آمریکا قرار دارد. این رودخانه که به رودخانه میسوری میپیوندد، نقش تجاری و اقتصادی مهمی برای آمریکا دارد. قسمتی از آبشار نیاگارا در مرز بین آمریکا و کانادا قرار دارد و از جاذبههای طبیعی توریستی در آمریکا به شمار میرود.[نیازمند منبع]
از نظر کل وسعت آب و خاک، آمریکا بعد از روسیه و کانادا، سومین کشور پهناور جهان است. به طور تقریبی، کشور آمریکا، شش برابر بزرگتر از ایران، ۲۵ درصد بزرگتر از استرالیا، ۳۵ برابر بزرگتر از انگلستان، ۱۴ برابر بزرگتر از فرانسه، و نصف روسیه است. همچنین این کشور، کمتر از یک سوم قارهٔ آفریقا، نصف آمریکای جنوبی، اندکی بزرگتر از برزیل، ۳۰۰ برابر بزرگتر از کشور هائیتی، و دو و نیم برابر بزرگتر از مجموع کشورهای اروپای غربی است.[نیازمند منبع]
مختصات و موقعیت جغرافیایی آمریکا
ایالات متحدهٔ آمریکا از شمال با کشور کانادا، و در جنوب با کشور مکزیک مرز خاکی دارد. این کشور در شمال غرب قارهٔ آمریکا و سواحل آلاسکا نیز با روسیه مرزهای مشترک آبی دارد. ۴۸ ایالت به هم پیوسته که خاک اصلی آمریکا را تشکیل میدهند، از شرق و جنوب شرقی به اقیانوس اطلس و خلیج مکزیک، و از غرب به اقیانوس آرام منتهی میشوند. ایالت آلاسکا نیز از شمال به اقیانوس منجمد شمالی، از غرب به تنگهٔ برینگ، و از جنوب غربی به اقیانوس آرام ختم میشود. مجمعالجزایر هاوایی هم در جنوب غرب خاک اصلی آمریکا و در اقیانوس آرام واقع شدهاند.[نیازمند منبع]
مناطق جغرافیایی و فرهنگی ایالات متحدهٔ آمریکا عبارتاند از: نیوانگلند، ایالتهای ساحلی اقیانوس اطلس، ایالتهای جنوب، ایالتهای غرب میانه (میدوست)، ایالتهای جنوب غربی آمریکا و ایالتهای غرب.[نیازمند منبع]
جمعیت ایالات متحده آمریکا بر پایه برآورد سال ۲۰۱۵ ادارهٔ آمار ایالات متحده آمریکا در حدود ۳۱۶٬۱۵۸٬۶۹۱ نفر تخمین زده شده است.
بر اساس آمار منتشرهٔ سال ۲۰۰۳، ترکیب نژادی مردم ایالات متحده آمریکا، بدین شرح است:
در این آمار، نژاد اسپانیاییتبار (موسوم به هیسپانیک، یا لاتینو) همراه با نژاد سفید محاسبه شدهاست. بر اساس بررسی سال ۲۰۰۰ مهاجران کشورهای دیگر به ترتیب جمعیت برابر بودند:مکزیک(۱۷۳٬۹۱۹ مهاجر)، چین(۴۵٬۶۵۲)، فیلیپین(۴۲٬۴۷۴)، هند(۴۲٬۰۴۶)، ویتنام(۲۶٬۷۴۷)، السالوادور(۲۲٬۵۷۸)هائیتی(۲۲٬۳۶۴)، کوبا(۲۰٬۸۳۱)، جمهوری دومینکن(۱۷٬۵۳۶)، روسیه(۱۷٬۱۱۰)، جامائیکا(۱۶٬۰۰۰)کانادا(۱۶٬۲۱۰)، کره(۱۵٬۸۳۰)، اوکراین(۱۵٬۸۱۰)، پاکستان(۱۴٬۵۳۵)، کلمبیا(۱۴٬۴۹۸)، بریتانیا(۱۳٬۳۸۵)، بوسنی و هرزگوین(۱۱٬۸۲۸)، گواتمالا(۹٬۹۷۰)، ایران(۸٬۹۱۵ بنگرید به ایرانیان مقیم آمریکا)
کشور ایالات متحدهٔ آمریکا دارای زبان رسمی نیست، گرچه انگلیسی آمریکایی نقش زبان ملی را دارد و در عمل نیز زبان اصلی کشور است. یکی از پیشنیازهای مهاجرت و اقامت در آمریکا برای خارجیان، تسلط نسبی به زبان انگلیسی است.
زبانهای مرسوم در آمریکا به ترتیب عبارتاند از:
بیش از ده هزار سال است که انسان در قارهٔ آمریکا زندگی میکند. قاره آمریکا توسط کریستف کلمب و در سال ۱۴۹۲ کشف شد اما او به اشتباه فکر کرد که آنجا هندوستان است اما مدتها بعد آمریگو وسپوچی اعلام کرد که این قاره جدیدی است. اما تاریخ آمریکا بهعنوان یک کشور مستقل به سال ۱۷۸۳ میلادی بازمیگردد که در آن آمریکا بر طبق معاهدهٔ پاریس به رسمیت شناخته گردید.
قبل از اعلام استقلال آمریکا در سال ۱۷۷۶، آمریکا مجموعهای از مستعمرات اروپایی بود. بطور مثال، اسپانیاییها در منطقهٔ فلوریدای امروزی ساکن شدند، بریتانیاییها شهر جیمز تاون در ویرجینیای امروزی را آباد کردند، هلندیها نیو آمستردام را که اکنون نیویورک خوانده میشود ساختند، و فرانسویها نیز در ایالت جنوبی لوئیزیانا و اطراف رودخانه میسیسیپی ساکن شدند. ایالت تگزاس بطور نمونه در تاریخ خود زیر شش پرچم مختلف قرار داشته است.[نیازمند منبع]
به تدریج با رشد و توسعه کشور، بخشهای زیادی از مستعمرات سیزدهگانه رفته رفته شاهد درگیری و شورش علیه حکومت بریتانیا شدند. بدین ترتیب جنگهای انقلاب آمریکا از آوریل ۱۷۷۵ با نبرد لگزینگتون آغاز شد، و سرانجام در سال ۱۷۸۳ در پی امضای قرارداد صلح با بریتانیا پایان یافت. نهایتاً استقلال ۱۳ مستعمرهٔ آمریکای شمالی با صدور اعلامیه استقلال آمریکا در ۴ ژوئیه ۱۷۷۶ محقق شد.
در این دوره آمریکا متشکل از ۱۳ ایالت خودمختار بود که تعارض قوانین هر ایالت مانند مالیات بر واردات باعث رکود اقتصادی و در نتیجه شورشهایی مانند شورش شیز شد به همین دلیل ۵۵ نماینده از ۱۲ ایالت (به جز رودآیلند) در فیلادلفیا منجمله جورج واشنگتن، بنجامین فرانکلین و جیمز مدیسون قانون اساسی ایالات متحده آمریکا را تصویب کردند که اکنون نیز قانون اساسی آمریکا است و از آن موقع ۲۵ اصلاحیه خوردهاست.
با شروع قرن جدید و انتقال پایتخت از فیلادلفیا به واشینگتن، دی. سی. و خرید لوئیزیانا در سال ۱۸۰۳ وسعت آمریکا شروع به گسترش بسیاری نمود، و بریتانیا که موقعیت خود را در خطر میدید در سال ۱۸۱۲ بار دیگر به آمریکا قشون کشی کرده و پایتخت جدید آمریکا را به آتش کشانید، اما موفق به استقرار در منطقه نگردید.[نیازمند منبع]
دو واقعهٔ بزرگ و پرتنش دیگر در تاریخ آمریکا در قرن نوزدهم یکی جنگ داخلی آمریکا و دیگری ترور آبراهام لینکلن در دهه شصت و پس از اعلامیه آزادی بردگان با استفاده از متمم سیزدهم قانون اساسی ایالات متحده آمریکا توسط وی بود. سال ۱۸۶۱ شاهد جنگ داخلی آمریکا بود که با ۶۰۰٬۰۰۰ تلفات و ۵۰۰٬۰۰۰ نفر زخمی، خونینترین جنگ در تاریخ این کشور بودهاست. علت این جنگ به عدول ایالتهای جنوبی مشهور به ایالات مؤتلفه آمریکا از حاکمیت مرکزی فدرال آمریکا بازمیگردد که خواهان اختیارات مستقل (از جمله ادامه و گسترش اقتصاد برده داری) در اداره ممالک خود بودند. این جنگ در سال ۱۸۶۵ با پیروزی شمالیها به فرماندهی یولیسیز سایمن گرانت بر رابرت ای لی، پایان گرفت.
آمریکا در سالیان بعد از جنگ داخلی خود را مشغول به کشورگشایی (همانند خرید آلاسکا از روسیه) و توسعه صنعت و اقتصاد در سطح جهانی کرد. جنگ جهانی اول که هیچ صدمهای به آمریکا وارد نگردانید دلیل رشد و ترقی هر چه سریعتر کشور گشت تا اینکه حادثه سقوط بازار آزاد آمریکا در ۱۹۲۹ آغازگر یک دوره رکود اقتصادی چند ساله محسوب میگردد که در آن نزدیک به یک چهارم جمعیت آمریکا شغلهای خود را از دست دادند.
با پیروزی و غلبهٔ متفقین در جنگ جهانی دوم و شکست نهایی آلمان نازی در این جنگ و تخریب شدید زیرساختهای اقتصادی و صنعتی اروپا، آمریکا که باز کمترین خسارات را متحمل شده بود، بهعنوان قدرت بزرگ جهانی پدیدار شد. حذف شدن اتحاد جماهیر شوروی از صحنهٔ رقابت با آمریکا در میادینی چون جنگ سرد، جنگ ویتنام، و جنگ کره، عملاً آمریکا را رفته رفته در موقعیت منحصربهفردی در جهان قرار داد.
نظام سیاسی ایالات متحده آمریکا در چارچوب یک قانون اساسی و به صورت یک نظام فدرالی است که از ویژگیهای حکومتی این کشور به شمار میرود. سیستم تفکیک قوا در این کشور به شکل کاملاً بارزی به مرحله اجرا درآمدهاست. بنیان گذاران و نویسندگان اعلامیه استقلال ایالات متحدهٔ آمریکا و قانون اساسی ایالات متحده به دلیل نگرانی از ظهور نظام سلطنتی اروپایی که در آن پادشاه قدرت مطلق را در دست داشت، نظام سیاسی جدید خود را به گونهای طراحی کردند که در آن فرد یا نهادی نتواند قدرت مطلق بدست آورد. این قوانین همچنین طوری در نظر گرفته شدهاند که از قدرت گرفتن بیش از حد اکثریت بر اقلیتها، و نیز هر یک از شاخههای ۳گانهٔ قدرت ممانعت بعمل آورد.
بر اساس قانون اساسی ایالات متحده آمریکا، قوهٔ مقننه یا کنگره ایالات متحدهٔ آمریکا از دو مجلس تشکیل شدهاست که مسؤولیت قانونگذاری را به طور کامل بر عهده دارند: مجلس نمایندگان و مجلس سنا. بر اساس نظام انتخاباتی آمریکا، نمایندگان با رأی مستقیم و برابر مردم انتخاب میشوند.
رئیس جمهور ایالات متحدهٔ آمریکا نیز بهعنوان رئیس قوهٔ مجریه و فرمانده کل قوا با رأی مستقیم مردم و از طریق آرای هیئت الکترال انتخاب میشود و در برگزیدن مشاورانش بهعنوان وزرا اختیارات تام دارد. در حقیقت رئیس جمهور، نیازی به کسب رأی اعتماد از کنگره ندارد و کنگره نیز متقابلاً نمیتواند با رأی عدم اعتماد، هیئت دولت یا وزرا را برکنار کند.[نیازمند منبع]
سومین شاخه از نظام سیاسی آمریکا، سیستم حقوقی ایالات متحدهٔ آمریکا است که کاملاً مستقل عمل میکند و نه قوهٔ مجریه و نه قوهٔ مقننه نمیتوانند بر روند تصمیمگیریهای آن تأثیر بگذارند. به عبارت دیگر، رئیس جمهور یا کنگره نمیتوانند مصوبات قانونی دیوان عالی فدرال ایالات متحدهٔ آمریکا را باطل اعلام کنند یا از اجرای آنان سر باز زنند. نظام حزبی در ایالات متحدهٔ آمریکا نیز در شکلدهی به سیاست و حکومت این کشور، نقش مهمی دارد.[نیازمند منبع]
ایالات متحده آمریکا به کمک تواناییهای اقتصادی و نظامی قابل توجه خود، نقش مهمی را درسیاست جهانی ایفا میکند. این کشور عضو ثابت شورای امنیت سازمان ملل است و دفتر مرکزی سازمان ملل در شهر نیویورک قرار دارد. به استثنای کشورهای ایران، کره شمالی و سودان، کوبا، ونزوئلا و بولیوی، سایر کشورها دارای روابط دیپلماتیک رسمی با آمریکا هستند.[نیازمند منبع]
آمریکا بوسیله قرارداد تجارت آزاد آمریکای شمالی و سازمان کشورهای آمریکایی با همسایگان خود (کانادا و مکزیک) روابط نزدیکی دارد. دولت این کشور هرساله میلیاردها دلار کمک مالی برای توسعه کشورهای دیگر اختصاص میدهد، اما درصد این کمکها از تولید ناخالص ملی نسبت به دیگر کشورهای کمک کننده، پائین است.[نیازمند منبع]
رئیس جمهور آمریکا یکی از عوامل اصلی تعیین کنندهٔ جهتهای کلی سیاست خارجی آمریکا است. بسیاری از مدارک و اسناد دوران هر رئیس جمهور امروزه در کتابخانههای ویژه هر رئیس جمهور موجود است. کنگره آمریکا بودجههای کمکهای خارجی را تعیین میکند، تحریمهای خارجی وضع میکند، و به کمک کمیتههای مخصوصی در مسائل سیاست خارجه اختیارات بررسی و بازبینی امور ویژه (همانند بررسی عملکرد افراد در ماجرای ایران-کنترا) را دارد.[نیازمند منبع]
بسته به نوع حزب یا گروه در قدرت در هر برهه از زمان (همانند حزب دموکرات یا حزب جمهوریخواهان)، سیاست خارجهٔ آمریکا تحت تأثیر تحولات و گرایشهای خاص آن حزب یا گروه قرار میگیرد. گروههای لابی نیر دارای قدرت نفوذ زیادی در تصمیمگیریهای سیاست خارجه هستند.[نیازمند منبع]
کشور آمریکا ۵۰ ایالت دارد که هرکدام از آنها بنا بر سامانهٔ فدرالیِ حاکم، دارای سطح بالایی از خودگردانی هستند.
البته ناحیهٔ واشینگتن، دی. سی. جزو هیچیک از ایالات آمریکا نیست و در منطقهٔ خودمختار کلمبیا قرار دارد. ناحیهٔ کلمبیا، در اصل بخشی از ایالت مریلند بود که در سال ۱۷۹۰ برای تأسیس مرکز آمریکا، یعنی شهر واشینگتن، دی.سی. در نظر گرفته شد.[نیازمند منبع]
خطا: هیچ پیوند مجازی در انتهای خط 29 یافت نشد
اگر لسآنجلس بزرگ را متشکل از ریورساید، سن برناردینو، انتاریو، لانگ بیچ، سنتا آنا و خود شهر لس آنجلس حساب کنیم، این منطقه شهری بیش از ۱۷٬۸۰۰٬۰۰۰ سکنه خواهد داشت که پس از کلانشهر نیویورک بزرگترین منطقه شهری ایالات متحده خواهد بود.
آموزش و پژوهش
در اواخر قرن نوزدهم میلادی در ایالات متحده آمریکا نزدیک به ۱۶۰٬۰۰۰ دانشجو در ۱٬۰۰۰ دانشگاه در سرتاسر کشور مشغول به تحصیل بودند. برخی از موسسات دانشگاهی آمریکا (همانند دانشگاه تنسی بطور نمونه) قبل از تأسیس ایالتی که در آن واقع بودند تأسیس شدند.[نیازمند منبع]
در این میان، و در بین موسسات آموزش عالی در آمریکا، موسسات زیر دارای کهنترین سابقه هستند:
امروزه هزینهٔ آموزش و تحصیلات در سطوح مدرسهای و متوسطه در ایالات متحده را اکثراً دولت پرداخت میکند. ایالات متحده با داشتن قریب به ۵٬۸۰۰ دانشگاه یا مؤسسه آموزش عالی تقریباً امکان تحصیلات در سطوح آموزش عالی را برای تمامی افراد جامعه فراهم کردهاست. وامهای کمبهره، کمک هزینههای بلاعوض، و انواع بورسهای تحصیلی، از اقسام راههاییاند که دانشجویان اقدام به پرداخت شهریههای خود میکنند. در این میان دانشگاه ایالتی اوهایو با داشتن بیش از ۵۳٬۷۱۵ دانشجو در یک پردیس، پرجمعیتترین دانشگاه آمریکا محسوب میشود.
در میان آمریکاییان بالای ۲۵ سال، ۸۴٫۶ درصد از دبیرستان فارغالتحصیل شدهاند، ۵۲٫۶ درصد وارد کالج، دانشگاه یا مؤسسات دیگر آموزش عالی شدهاند، ۲۷٫۲ درصد مدرک کارشناسی دریافت کردهاند، و ۹٫۶ درصد دارای مدارک کارشناسی ارشد و بالاتر هستند.
تقریباً ۹۹ درصد آمریکاییان دارای حداقل سواد پایه هستند. در طبقهبندی سازمان ملل متحد، شاخص آموزشی در کشور ایالات متحده ۰٫۹۷ است که در رتبه دوازدهم جهانی جای دارد. در سال ۲۰۱۲ ایالات متحده آمریکا در میان کشورهای دنیا از نظر تعداد تحصیل کردگان آموزش عالی به نسبت جمعیت در رتبه چهارم جهان قرار داشت.
پژوهش و توسعه در آمریکا در دو جبهه دولتی و خصوصی با هم رقابت میکنند. دره سیلیکون نمونه بارزی از فعالیتهای بخش خصوصی در توسعه صنعت و فناوری آمریکاست. از سوی دیگر مراکز ملی همانند آزمایشگاههای فدرال، ناسا، و مؤسسات ملی بهداشت ایالات متحده آمریکا در پیشبرد صنعت و فناوری کشور نقش کلیدی بر عهده دارند.[نیازمند منبع]
آمریکا یکی از تنها سه کشور دنیا است که هنوز رسماً از سامانه استاندارد بینالمللی یکاها استفاده نمیکند و بلکه پایبند به دستگاه امپراتوری بریتانیااست. با اینحال سیستم متریک رفته رفته در صنعت و سطوح دانشگاهی به تدریج رواج مییابد.[نیازمند منبع]
ایالات متحدهٔ آمریکا اقتصاد کاپتالیستی از نوع سرمایهداری انحصاری دارد. ویژگی بارز اقتصاد ایالات متحدهٔ آمریکا عبارت است از تسلط انحصارها در رشتههای مختلف، که برمبنای منابع طبیعی فراوان، زیربنای توسعهیافته، تولید انبوه، و مصرف زیاد استوار است. تولید ناخالص داخلی ایالات متحدهٔ آمریکا با بیش از ۱۳ تریلیون (۱۳٬۰۰۰ میلیارد) دلار، یعنی حدود ۲۰٪ تولید ناخالص جهان، نخستین اقتصاد بزرگ جهان است.
از لحاظ حجم مبادلات، ایالات متحده بزرگترین واردکننده، و - پس از آلمان و چین - سومین صادرکنندهٔ بزرگ جهان است. کانادا، چین، مکزیک، ژاپن و آلمان، به ترتیب بزرگترین شرکای تجاری آمریکا هستند. آمریکا در دههٔ اخیر بزرگترین بدهی جهان را نیز بر شانه داشتهاست.
بزرگترین اقلام صادراتی آمریکا بترتیب تجهیزات صنعتی (۲۹٫۸٪)، ماشینآلات (۲۹٫۵٪)، کالاهای مصرفی غیر اتومبیل (۱۲٫۴٪)، خودرو و تولیدات وابسته (۹٫۳٪)، تولیدات صنایع غذایی (۸٫۳٪)، و تولیدات صنایع هوایی (۶٫۶٪) هستند، در حالی که بزرگترین اقلام وارداتی به آمریکا کالاهای مصرفی غیر اتومبیل (۲۳٪)، سوخت (۲۲٫۱٪)، ماشینآلات (۱۹٫۹٪)، تجهیزات صنعتی (۱۴٫۸٪)، تولیدات خودرو (۱۱٫۱٪)، صنایع غذایی (۴٫۲٪)، و صنایع هوایی (۱٫۷٪) هستند.
اما بزرگترین محصولات تولیدی آمریکا مواد شیمیایی، تولیدات نفتی، فولاد، خودرو، تولیدات صنایع هوایی، ارتباطات، الکترونیک، تولیدات غذایی و مصرفی، و صنایع معدن و چوب هستند. آمریکا همچنین در تولید برق، ظرفیت پالایش نفت، ذخیرههای ذغال سنگ، تولید انرژی بادی، و انرژی هستهای در جهان، رتبه نخست را دارا است.[نیازمند منبع]
بیشتر چرخهای اقتصادی آمریکا متعلق به بخش خصوصی است، تا جاییکه بخش دولتی فقط ۱۲٫۴٪ تولید ناخالص ملی را سالیانه باعث میشود. با اینحال ۷۵٪ تولید ناخالص ملی محصول بخش خدماتی بودهاست. با اینکه تولیدات کشاورزی آمریکا حدود ۱٪ تولید ناخالص ملی این کشور است، همین سطح تولید حدود ۶۰٪ کل تولیدات کشاورزی جهان را تشکیل میدهد.[نیازمند منبع]
بخش بهداشت و خدمات اجتماعی با داشتن ۱۶ میلیون نفر شاغل، بزرگترین بخش اشتغال آمریکا را تشکیل میدهد. از لحاظ مجموع ساعات کاری در طول سال، آمریکاییها بیشترین تعداد روز در سال را کار میکنند. با این حال در مقایسه با کشورهای صنعتی دیگر، از نظر تولید بر حسب ساعات کاری آمریکاییها از برخی کشورهای اروپایی عقب ترند.
در میان ۵۰ ایالت آمریکا، از لحاظ درآمد سرانه، ایالت نیوجرسی در رتبه اول، و ایالت میسیسیپی در رتبه آخر در مقایسه با ایالات دیگر قرار دارند. نزدیک به ۱۳٪ آمریکاییان در زیر خط فقر تعیین شده توسط دولت فدرال قرار دارند و فاصله طبقاتی بین بالاترین و پایینترین قشرها جامعه آمریکا همچنان در حال افزایش است.
حمل و نقل
در سال ۲۰۱۰ به ازای هر ۱٬۰۰۰ آمریکایی ۷۹۷ اتومبیل در این کشور وجود داشت و برابر آمار به طور متوسط هر آمریکایی بالغ روزانه ۵۵ دقیقه (یا ۲۹ مایل) از اتومبیل استفاده میکند. اما در مقایسه با گسترهٔ اتومبیل، پایانهٔ ریلی آن به نسبت کمتر است. از نظر حمل و نقل عمومی، تنها ۹٪ از سفرها از این طریق انجام میشود در صورتی که این مقدار برای اروپا ۳۸٪است. استفاده از دوچرخه نیز نسبت به اروپا کمتر است. پنج شرکت بزرگ هواپیمایی دنیا -بر اساس تعداد مسافران- آمریکایی هستند. شرکت امریکن ایرلاینز اولین رتبه را در این میان داراست. همچنین از سی فرودگاه پرترافیک دنیا شانزده فرودگاه متعلق به آمریکاست.
دین و مذهب
آمریکا به طور رسمی یک کشور سکولار میباشد. در ایالات متحده آمریکا بر اساس متمم اول قانون اساسی ایالات متحده آمریکا، دین رسمی وجود ندارد و دولت نسبت به همه ادیان و مذاهب بی طرف است، اما همین متمم نیز آزادی تمام ادیان را تضمین کردهاست. به همین دلیل است که مثلاً زنان محجبهٔ مسلمان آمریکایی اجازه حضور در مراکز دولتی و دانشگاهی کشور را از نظر قانونی دارند.[نیازمند منبع]
در سال ۱۷۷۶ با اعلامیهٔ استقلال، رسماً ایالات متحده آمریکا بنیانگذاری شد و چند سال بعد، در ۱۷۹۱، قانون اساسی فعلی آمریکا که شامل اصلاحیهٔ نخست متضمن آزادیها و حقوق مدنی (منجمله جدایی نهاد دین از نهاد حکومت، آزادی در انتخاب دین و آزادی در اجرای مناسک دینی) به تصویب رسید. به یمن کثرت و تنوع ادیان ساکنان و نیز اصلاحیهٔ نخست قانون اساسی، آمریکا هیچگاه صاحب دین رسمی و حکومتی نبود.
با وجود جدایی دین از سیاست در آمریکا، دین اهمیت ونقش مهمی در این کشور دارد که نماد آن جمله توکل ما به خداست شعار کشور آمریکا است که بر روی اسکناس دلار آمریکا نیز نقش بسته است گروههای مذهبی قدرت اثر گذاری قابل توجهی در آمریکا دارند در دهه ۱۹۲۰ این گروهها توانستند دولت را ترغیب به ممنوعیت تولید و مصرف مشروبات الکلی کنند(اصلاحیه هجدهم قانون اساسی ایالات متحده آمریکا ولی با افزایش خشونتها در پی گسترش قاچاق در اصلاحیه بیست و یکم برداشته شد)و بر تدریس نظریه تکامل در مدارس آمریکا بصورت محدود و در برخی ایالات محدودیت ایجاد کنند. گروههای مذهبی به خصوص پروتستانهای انجیلی و کاتولیکها، مواضع سرسختانهای را دربرابر موضوعات چون همجنسگرایی، سقط جنین و آموزش مختلط در مدارس آمریکا، اتخاذ کردهاند.[نیازمند منبع]
برخی از فرقههای مذهبی معروف آمریکا عبارتاند از:
در عرصه هنر و معماری هنرمندان آمریکایی از فرانک لوید رایت گرفته تا اندی وارهال آثار بسیار قابل توجهی در سطح جهانی خلق کردهاند. هرم ورودی موزه لوور، کاخ مجلس ملی بنگلادش، برج خلیفه دوبی، و دروازهٔ اروپا در مادرید اسپانیا، نمونههایی از خلاقیت معماران آمریکایی در سراسر جهان است.[نیازمند منبع]
ادوارد مایبریج در سال ۱۸۷۸ برای نخستین بار تصاویر متحرکی را خلق کرد که اسب و بوفالوی وحشی آمریکایی را در حال دویدن نشان میداد. نخستین فیلم تجارتی آمریکا فیلمی بود که توسط دستگاه کینتسکوپ ساخت توماس ادیسون در ۱۸۹۴ در شهر نیویورک به نمایش درآمد. از آن زمان تا کنون آمریکا دارای صنعت فیلمسازی و سینمایی بسیار بزرگی شدهاست که مرکز آن امروزه هالیوود در شهر لسآنجلس است. هالیوود امروزه با ۶۳ میلیارد دلار درآمد، ۳۵ درصد کل تولیدات صنعت فیلمسازی جهان را به خود اختصاص دادهاست. این صنعت با هنر تئاتر در آمریکا رابطهٔ تنگاتنگی دارد، اما بر خلاف سینما، مرکز هنر تئاتر همچنان در شهر نیویورک است، جاییکه عمدهترین مراکز هنرهای نمایشی در جهان در آن قرار دارند. برادوی از این لحاظ دارای شهرت و سابقهٔ بی همتاییست.
موسیقی امروزه به شکل تولید و اجرای زنده در آمریکا دارای فعالیت بسیار زیادیست بطوریکه در سال ۲۰۰۸ میلادی بیش از ۱۰ میلیارد دلار درآمد تنها حاصل از صنعت ضبط و فروش موسیقی در آمریکا کسب گردید. سبکهای اصیل موسیقی آمریکایی میتوان به سبکهای جاز، بلوز، هیپ هاپ و کانتری اشاره کرد.[نیازمند منبع]
ادبیات آمریکا در مدت نسبتاً کوتاه عمر این کشور، از مشهورترین چهرههای شناخته شده ادبیات بشری را به دنیا ارزانی داشته. از مارک تواین و ادگار آلن پو و رالف والدو امرسون گرفته تا ارنست همینگوی و جک لندن و امیلی دیکنسون، ادبیات آمریکا را قطعاً از نقاط درخشان فرهنگ این کشور میتوان به حساب آورد که بر هنرهای کشورهای دیگر تأثیرات فراوانی داشتهاست. از دیگر نویسندگان برتر تاریخ آمریکا میتوان تی اس الیوت، ویلیام فاکنر، تنسی ویلیامز، جی دی سالینجر، آیزاک آسیموف، مایکل کرایتون، و ریموند کارور را نام برد که آشنای نزدیک صاحبان قلم ادبیات جهان اند.[نیازمند منبع]
غذا و آشپزی
آشپزی آمریکایی همچون سرزمین آمریکا دارای تنوع و گوناگونی فراوانیست و از آشپزی آمریکایی چینی تا آشپزی مستعمرات سیزدهگانه، غذای آمریکاییان دارای طعم و خواص منحصربهفردیست که برخی از این غذاها همانند استیک و باربیکیو و چیزبرگر در دنیا محبوبیت عام دارند و برخی دیگر همانند خوراک مار زنگی، پاستای گولاش آمریکایی، پیتزای نیویورکی و گامبو کمتر در خارج از مرزهای آمریکا شهرت یافتهاند.[نیازمند منبع]
از قرن نوزدهم بیسبال بهعنوان ورزش ملی آمریکا شناخته شد. در وهله بعد فوتبال آمریکایی، بسکتبال و هاکی روی یخ ورزشهای ملی آمریکا قرار گرفتند. شاید امروزه فوتبال آمریکایی پرطرفدارترین ورزش در آمریکا باشد. اما بسته به موقعیت جغرافیایی ترتیب اهمیت این ورزشها تفاوت خواهد داشت.[نیازمند منبع]
این ورزشها در سطوح مختلف نیز برگزار میشوند. بطور نمونه فوتبال کالجی و بسکتبال کالجی در سطوح ملی و سراسری بسیار پرطرفدارند. بوکس و اسبدوانی نیز بسیار پرطرفدارند، اما این ورزشها زیر سایه دو ورزش گلف و اتومبیلرانی (به خصوص مسابقات نسکار) هستند.[نیازمند منبع]
ایالات متحده آمریکا در بازیهای المپیک سابقه درخشانی دارد. این کشور تا کنون هشت مرتبه بترتیب در بازیهای سالهای ۱۹۰۴، ۱۹۳۲ (زمستانی)، ۱۹۳۲ (تابستانی)، ۱۹۶۰، ۱۹۸۰، ۱۹۸۴، ۱۹۹۶، و ۲۰۰۲ میزبان بازیهای المپیک بوده است. آمریکا با داشتن ۲٬۱۰۳ مدال در المپیک تابستانی موفقترین کشور دنیا در المپیک محسوب میشود، و با داشتن ۲۱۶ مدال در بازیهای المپیک زمستانی در رده دوم جای میگیرد.
نیروهای نظامی آمریکا به پنج دسته اصلی تقسیم میشوند:
در سال ۲۰۰۴ ایالات متحده آمریکا با بودجه نظامی ۵۲۲ میلیارد دلار، ۳٫۷٪ تولید ناخالص داخلی را صرف هزینههای نظامی کرد، که این هزینههای نظامی به تنهایی تقریباً معادل نصف هزینههای نظامی جهانی بودند.
رئیس جمهور ایالات متحده آمریکا برای اقدام نظامی از مشورتهای مشاور امنیت ملی ایالات متحده آمریکا برخوردار است. در رده پایینتر، وزیر دفاع قرار دارد؛ رئیس ستاد مشترک ارتش ایالات متحده آمریکا هم به فرمانده کل قوا و هم به وزیر دفاع مشورت میدهد.[نیازمند منبع]
امنیت و قوای نظمیه
نظم و امنیت در سطح شهر و ایالت را کلانتر و پلیسهای محلی و ایالتی بر عهده دارند. در برخی موارد و در مواقع مشخص و معینی، ارگانهای فدرال همانند افبیآی و مارشالها وارد عمل میشوند. سیستم قضایی نیز به همین گونه (و از سطوح محلی به سمت سطوح فدرال) بنا نهاده شده است. آمریکا در میان کشورهای پیشرفته دارای آمار جرم و جنایت بالاتری بوده است، بخصوص در موارد مربوط به سلاحهای گرم. در سال ۲۰۰۹ به ازای هر یکصد هزار نفر تعداد ۵ قتل در آمریکا رخ داد. نقش متمم دوم قانون اساسی ایالات متحده آمریکا (در اعطای آزادی حمل سلاح گرم به شهروندان) همواره مورد توجه بحثهای فراوانی بوده است. آمریکا همچنین دارای تعداد نسبی بیشتری جمعیت زندانی میباشد. و این کشور از معدود کشورهای پیشرفته است که هنوز مجرمین را (در ۳۴ ایالت و برخی موارد فدرال) اعدام میکند. از سال ۱۹۷۶ تا کنون، تعداد یکهزار اعدام صورت گرفته. در سال ۲۰۱۰ پس از کشورهای چین، ایران، کره شمالی، و یمن، آمریکا از این لحاظ در جهان در رتبه پنجم بود. با اینحال این قانون از ایالت به ایالت فرق میکند. بطور مثال حکم اعدام در ایالات نیوجرسی، نیومکزیکو و ایلینوی ممنوع است.
به غیر از ارگانهایی همانند گروه فرارسی شمارهای، صدای آمریکا، یا هیئت کارفرمایان پخش که توسط ارگانهای دولتی برای مخاطبین خارج از آمریکا تنظیم میشوند، اکثر رسانههای درون آمریکا یا همانند شبکههایی نظیر فاکس، اچ بی او، امتیوی، و سی ان ان بطور کاملاً خصوصی و با درآمد حاصل از تبلیغات و آگهیهای تجارتی اداره میگردند، یا همانند رادیوی عمومی ملی و پیبیاس توسط موسسات و بنیادهای خیریه تأمین مالی میگردند.[نیازمند منبع]
قدیمیترین روزنامهٔ آمریکا با تیراژ ثابت و برنامهٔ چاپ روزانه در ۳۰ مهٔ سال ۱۷۸۳ شروع به کار کرد، و فیلادلفیا ایونینگ پست نام داشت. در سال ۲۰۰۸، ۶۲۵۳ هفتهنامه و ۱۴۲۲ روزنامه در آمریکا درحال فعالیت بود.
پیوند به بیرون
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America (//), is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.[fn 6] At 3.8 million square miles (9.8 million km2) and with over 324 million people, the United States is the world's third- or fourth-largest country by total area[fn 7] and the third-most populous. The capital is Washington, D.C., and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U.S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The extremely diverse geography, climate and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Asia to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century. The United States emerged from 13 British colonies along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the Seven Years' War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, and the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776. The war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. The United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, and gradually admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led to the end of legal slavery in the country. By the end of that century, the United States extended into the Pacific Ocean, and its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power. The United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, and a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower.
The U.S. is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States (OAS), and other international organizations. The United States is a highly developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for approximately a quarter of global GDP. The U.S. economy is the fastest-growing in the Americas and is largely post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. Though its population is only 4.3% of the world total, Americans hold 33.2% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. The United States ranks among the highest nations in several measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, and productivity per person. The U.S. is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending. It is also a global leader in science and technology.
In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere the Americas in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci (Latin: Americus Vespucius). The first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq., George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army. Addressed to Lt. Col. Joseph Reed, Moylan expressed his wish to carry the "full and ample powers of the United States of America" to Spain to assist in the revolutionary war effort. The first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776.
The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the 'United States of America'". The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be 'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence. This draft of the document did not surface until June 21, 1776, and it is unclear whether it was written before or after Dickinson used the term in his June 17 draft of the Articles of Confederation.
The short form "United States" is also standard. Other common forms are the "U.S.", the "USA", and "America". Colloquial names are the "U.S. of A." and, internationally, the "States". "Columbia", a name popular in poetry and songs of the late 18th century, derives its origin from Christopher Columbus; it appears in the name "District of Columbia".
The phrase "United States" was originally plural, a description of a collection of independent states—e.g., "the United States are"—including in the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, ratified in 1865. The singular form—e.g., "the United States is"—became popular after the end of the American Civil War. The singular form is now standard; the plural form is retained in the idiom "these United States". The difference is more significant than usage; it is a difference between a collection of states and a unit.
A citizen of the United States is an "American". "United States", "American" and "U.S." refer to the country adjectivally ("American values", "U.S. forces"). In English, the word "American" rarely refers to topics or subjects not connected with the United States.
Indigenous peoples and pre-Columbian history
The first inhabitants of North America migrated from Siberia by way of the Bering land bridge and arrived at least 15,000 years ago, though increasing evidence suggests an even earlier arrival. After crossing the land bridge, the first Americans moved southward, either along the Pacific coast or through an interior ice-free corridor between the Cordilleran and Laurentide ice sheets. The Clovis culture appeared around 11,000 BC, and it is considered to be an ancestor of most of the later indigenous cultures of the Americas. While the Clovis culture was thought, throughout the late 20th century, to represent the first human settlement of the Americas, in recent years consensus has changed in recognition of pre-Clovis cultures.
Over time, indigenous cultures in North America grew increasingly complex, and some, such as the pre-Columbian Mississippian culture in the southeast, developed advanced agriculture, grand architecture, and state-level societies. From approximately 800 to 1600 AD the Mississippian culture flourished, and its largest city Cahokia is considered the largest, most complex pre-Columbian archaeological site in the modern-day United States. In the southern Great Lakes region, the Iroquois Confederacy (Haudenosaunee) was established at some point between the twelfth and fifteenth centuries, lasting until the end of the Revolutionary War.
The date of the first settlements of the Hawaiian Islands is a topic of continuing debate. Archaeological evidence seems to indicate a settlement as early as 124 AD. During his third and final voyage, Captain James Cook became the first European to begin formal contact with Hawaii. After his initial landfall in January 1778 at Waimea harbour, Kauai, Cook named the archipelago the "Sandwich Islands" after the fourth Earl of Sandwich—the acting First Lord of the Admiralty of the British Royal Navy.
After Spain sent Columbus on his first voyage to the New World in 1492, other explorers followed. The first Europeans to arrive in territory of the modern United States were Spanish conquistadors such as Juan Ponce de León, who made his first visit to Florida in 1513; however, if unincorporated territories are accounted for, then credit would go to Christopher Columbus who landed in Puerto Rico on his 1493 voyage. Spanish set up the first settlements in Florida and New Mexico such as Saint Augustine and Santa Fe. The French established their own as well along the Mississippi River. Successful English settlement on the eastern coast of North America began with the Virginia Colony in 1607 at Jamestown and the Pilgrims' Plymouth Colony in 1620. Many settlers were dissenting Christian groups who came seeking religious freedom. The continent's first elected legislative assembly, Virginia's House of Burgesses created in 1619, the Mayflower Compact, signed by the Pilgrims before disembarking, and the Fundamental Orders of Connecticut, established precedents for the pattern of representative self-government and constitutionalism that would develop throughout the American colonies.
Most settlers in every colony were small farmers, but other industries developed within a few decades as varied as the settlements. Cash crops included tobacco, rice and wheat. Extraction industries grew up in furs, fishing and lumber. Manufacturers produced rum and ships, and by the late colonial period Americans were producing one-seventh of the world's iron supply. Cities eventually dotted the coast to support local economies and serve as trade hubs. English colonists were supplemented by waves of Scotch-Irish and other groups. As coastal land grew more expensive, freed indentured servants pushed further west.
A large-scale slave trade with English privateers was begun. The life expectancy of slaves was much higher in North America than further south, because of less disease and better food and treatment, leading to a rapid increase in the numbers of slaves. Colonial society was largely divided over the religious and moral implications of slavery and colonies passed acts for and against the practice. But by the turn of the 18th century, African slaves were replacing indentured servants for cash crop labor, especially in southern regions.
With the British colonization of Georgia in 1732, the 13 colonies that would become the United States of America were established. All had local governments with elections open to most free men, with a growing devotion to the ancient rights of Englishmen and a sense of self-government stimulating support for republicanism. With extremely high birth rates, low death rates, and steady settlement, the colonial population grew rapidly. Relatively small Native American populations were eclipsed. The Christian revivalist movement of the 1730s and 1740s known as the Great Awakening fueled interest in both religion and religious liberty.
During the Seven Years' War (in America, known as the French and Indian War), British forces seized Canada from the French, but the francophone population remained politically isolated from the southern colonies. Excluding the Native Americans, who were being conquered and displaced, the 13 British colonies had a population of over 2.1 million in 1770, about one-third that of Britain. Despite continuing new arrivals, the rate of natural increase was such that by the 1770s only a small minority of Americans had been born overseas. The colonies' distance from Britain had allowed the development of self-government, but their success motivated monarchs to periodically seek to reassert royal authority.
In 1774 the Spanish Navy ship Santiago, under Juan Pérez had entered and anchored in the inlet at Nootka Sound. Although the Spanish did not land, natives paddled to the ship to trade furs for abalone shells from California. At the time, the Spanish were able to monopolize the trade between Asia and North America, granting limited licenses to the Portuguese. When the Russians began establishing a growing fur trading system in Alaska the Spanish began to challenge the Russians, with Pérez's voyage being the first of many to the Pacific Northwest.[fn 8]
After having arrived in the Hawaiian islands in 1778, Captain Cook sailed north and then north-east to explore the west coast of North America north of the Spanish settlements in Alta California. He made landfall on the Oregon coast at approximately 44°30′ north latitude, naming his landing point Cape Foulweather. Bad weather forced his ships south to about 43° north before they could begin their exploration of the coast northward. In March 1778, Cook landed on Bligh Island and named the inlet "King George's Sound". He recorded that the native name was Nutka or Nootka, apparently misunderstanding his conversations at Friendly Cove/Yuquot; his informant may have been explaining that he was on an island (itchme nutka, a place you can "go around"). There may also have been confusion with Nuu-chah-nulth, the natives' autonym (name for themselves). It may also have simply been based on Cook’s mispronunciation of Yuquot, the native name of the place.
Effects on and interaction with native populations
With the progress of European colonization in the territories of the contemporary United States, the Native Americans were often conquered and displaced. The native population of America declined after Europeans arrived, and for various reasons, primarily diseases such as smallpox and measles. Violence was not a significant factor in the overall decline among Native Americans, though conflict among themselves and with Europeans affected specific tribes and various colonial settlements.
In the early days of colonization, many European settlers were subject to food shortages, disease, and attacks from Native Americans. Native Americans were also often at war with neighboring tribes and allied with Europeans in their colonial wars. At the same time, however, many natives and settlers came to depend on each other. Settlers traded for food and animal pelts, natives for guns, ammunition and other European wares. Natives taught many settlers where, when and how to cultivate corn, beans and squash. European missionaries and others felt it was important to "civilize" the Native Americans and urged them to adopt European agricultural techniques and lifestyles.
Captain James Cook's last voyage included sailing along the coast of North America and Alaska searching for a Northwest Passage for approximately nine months. He returned to the Hawaii to resupply, initially exploring the coasts of Maui and the big island, trading with locals and then making anchor at Kealakekua Bay in January 1779. When his ships and company left the islands, a ship's mast broke in bad weather, forcing them to return in mid-February. Cook would be killed days later. [fn 9][fn 10]
Independence and expansion (1776–1865)
The American Revolutionary War was the first successful colonial war of independence against a European power. Americans had developed an ideology of "republicanism" asserting that government rested on the will of the people as expressed in their local legislatures. They demanded their rights as Englishmen and "no taxation without representation". The British insisted on administering the empire through Parliament, and the conflict escalated into war.
Following the passage of the Lee Resolution, on July 2, 1776, which was the actual vote for independence, the Second Continental Congress adopted the Declaration of Independence on July 4, which proclaimed, in a long preamble, that humanity is created equal in their unalienable rights and that those rights were not being protected by Great Britain, and declared, in the words of the resolution, that the Thirteen Colonies were independent states and had no allegiance to the British crown in the United States. The fourth day of July is celebrated annually as Independence Day. The Second Continental Congress declared on September 9 "where, heretofore, the words 'United Colonies' have been used, the stile be altered for the future to the 'United States' ". In 1777, the Articles of Confederation established a weak government that operated until 1789.
Britain recognized the independence of the United States following their defeat at Yorktown in 1781. In the peace treaty of 1783, American sovereignty was recognized from the Atlantic coast west to the Mississippi River. Nationalists led the Philadelphia Convention of 1787 in writing the United States Constitution, ratified in state conventions in 1788. The federal government was reorganized into three branches, on the principle of creating salutary checks and balances, in 1789. George Washington, who had led the revolutionary army to victory, was the first president elected under the new constitution. The Bill of Rights, forbidding federal restriction of personal freedoms and guaranteeing a range of legal protections, was adopted in 1791.
Although the federal government criminalized the international slave trade in 1808, after 1820, cultivation of the highly profitable cotton crop exploded in the Deep South, and along with it, the slave population. The Second Great Awakening, especially 1800–1840, converted millions to evangelical Protestantism. In the North, it energized multiple social reform movements, including abolitionism; in the South, Methodists and Baptists proselytized among slave populations.
Americans' eagerness to expand westward prompted a long series of American Indian Wars. The Louisiana Purchase of French-claimed territory in 1803 almost doubled the nation's area. The War of 1812, declared against Britain over various grievances and fought to a draw, strengthened U.S. nationalism. A series of military incursions into Florida led Spain to cede it and other Gulf Coast territory in 1819. Expansion was aided by steam power, when steamboats began traveling along America's large water systems, which were connected by new canals, such as the Erie and the I&M; then, even faster railroads began their stretch across the nation's land.
From 1820 to 1850, Jacksonian democracy began a set of reforms which included wider white male suffrage; it led to the rise of the Second Party System of Democrats and Whigs as the dominant parties from 1828 to 1854. The Trail of Tears in the 1830s exemplified the Indian removal policy that resettled Indians into the west on Indian reservations. The U.S. annexed the Republic of Texas in 1845 during a period of expansionist Manifest destiny. The 1846 Oregon Treaty with Britain led to U.S. control of the present-day American Northwest. Victory in the Mexican–American War resulted in the 1848 Mexican Cession of California and much of the present-day American Southwest.
The California Gold Rush of 1848–49 spurred western migration and the creation of additional western states. After the American Civil War, new transcontinental railways made relocation easier for settlers, expanded internal trade and increased conflicts with Native Americans. Over a half-century, the loss of the American bison (sometimes called "buffalo") was an existential blow to many Plains Indians cultures. In 1869, a new Peace Policy sought to protect Native-Americans from abuses, avoid further war, and secure their eventual U.S. citizenship, although conflicts, including several of the largest Indian Wars, continued throughout the West into the 1900s.
Civil War and Reconstruction Era
Differences of opinion over social order between northern and southern states in early United States society, particularly regarding the slavery of Africans and African Americans, ultimately led to the American Civil War. Initially, states entering the Union alternated between slave and free states, keeping a sectional balance in the Senate, while free states outstripped slave states in population and in the House of Representatives. But with additional western territory and more free-soil states, tensions between slave and free states mounted with arguments over federalism and disposition of the territories, whether and how to expand or restrict slavery.
With the 1860 election of Abraham Lincoln, the first president from the largely anti-slavery Republican Party, conventions in thirteen slave states ultimately declared secession and formed the Confederate States of America, while the federal government maintained that secession was illegal. The ensuing war was at first for Union, then after 1863 as casualties mounted and Lincoln delivered his Emancipation Proclamation, a second war aim became abolition of slavery. The war remains the deadliest military conflict in American history, resulting in the deaths of approximately 618,000 soldiers as well as many civilians.
Following the Union victory in 1865, three amendments were added to the U.S. Constitution: the Thirteenth Amendment prohibited slavery, the Fourteenth Amendment provided citizenship to the nearly four million African Americans who had been slaves, and the Fifteenth Amendment ensured that they had the right to vote. The war and its resolution led to a substantial increase in federal power aimed at reintegrating and rebuilding the Southern states while ensuring the rights of the newly freed slaves.
Southern white conservatives, calling themselves "Redeemers" took control after the end of Reconstruction. By the 1890–1910 period Jim Crow laws disenfranchised most blacks and some poor whites. Blacks faced racial segregation, especially in the South. Racial minorities occasionally experienced vigilante violence.
Further immigration, expansion and industrialization
In the North, urbanization and an unprecedented influx of immigrants from Southern and Eastern Europe supplied a surplus of labor for the country's industrialization and transformed its culture. National infrastructure including telegraph and transcontinental railroads spurred economic growth and greater settlement and development of the American Old West. The later invention of electric light and the telephone would also affect communication and urban life.
The end of the Indian Wars further expanded acreage under mechanical cultivation, increasing surpluses for international markets. Mainland expansion was completed by the purchase of Alaska from Russia in 1867. In 1893, pro-American elements in Hawaii overthrew the monarchy and formed the Republic of Hawaii, which the U.S. annexed in 1898. Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines were ceded by Spain in the same year, following the Spanish–American War.
Rapid economic development during the late 19th and early 20th centuries fostered the rise of many prominent industrialists. Tycoons like Cornelius Vanderbilt, John D. Rockefeller, and Andrew Carnegie led the nation's progress in railroad, petroleum, and steel industries. Banking became a major part of the economy, with J. P. Morgan playing a notable role. Edison and Tesla undertook the widespread distribution of electricity to industry, homes, and for street lighting. Henry Ford revolutionized the automotive industry. The American economy boomed, becoming the world's largest, and the United States achieved great power status. These dramatic changes were accompanied by social unrest and the rise of populist, socialist, and anarchist movements. This period eventually ended with the advent of the Progressive Era, which saw significant reforms in many societal areas, including women's suffrage, alcohol prohibition, regulation of consumer goods, greater antitrust measures to ensure competition and attention to worker conditions.
World War I, Great Depression, and World War II
The United States remained neutral from the outbreak of World War I, in 1914, until 1917 when it joined the war as an "associated power", alongside the formal Allies of World War I, helping to turn the tide against the Central Powers. In 1919, President Woodrow Wilson took a leading diplomatic role at the Paris Peace Conference and advocated strongly for the U.S. to join the League of Nations. However, the Senate refused to approve this, and did not ratify the Treaty of Versailles that established the League of Nations.
In 1920, the women's rights movement won passage of a constitutional amendment granting women's suffrage. The 1920s and 1930s saw the rise of radio for mass communication and the invention of early television. The prosperity of the Roaring Twenties ended with the Wall Street Crash of 1929 and the onset of the Great Depression. After his election as president in 1932, Franklin D. Roosevelt responded with the New Deal, which included the establishment of the Social Security system. The Great Migration of millions of African Americans out of the American South began before World War I and extended through the 1960s; whereas the Dust Bowl of the mid-1930s impoverished many farming communities and spurred a new wave of western migration.
At first effectively neutral during World War II while Germany conquered much of continental Europe, the United States began supplying material to the Allies in March 1941 through the Lend-Lease program. On December 7, 1941, the Empire of Japan launched a surprise attack on Pearl Harbor, prompting the United States to join the Allies against the Axis powers. During the war, the United States was referred as one of the "Four Policemen" of Allies power who met to plan the postwar world, along with Britain, the Soviet Union and China. Though the nation lost more than 400,000 soldiers, it emerged relatively undamaged from the war with even greater economic and military influence.
The United States played a leading role in the Bretton Woods and Yalta conferences with the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union and other Allies, which signed agreements on new international financial institutions and Europe's postwar reorganization. As an Allied victory was won in Europe, a 1945 international conference held in San Francisco produced the United Nations Charter, which became active after the war. The United States developed the first nuclear weapons and used them on Japan in the cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki; causing the Japanese to surrender on September 2, ending World War II. Parades and celebrations followed in what is known as Victory Day, or V-J Day.
Cold War and civil rights era
After World War II the United States and the Soviet Union jockeyed for power during what became known as the Cold War, driven by an ideological divide between capitalism and communism and, according to the school of geopolitics, a divide between the maritime Atlantic and the continental Eurasian camps. They dominated the military affairs of Europe, with the U.S. and its NATO allies on one side and the USSR and its Warsaw Pact allies on the other. The U.S. developed a policy of containment towards the expansion of communist influence. While the U.S. and Soviet Union engaged in proxy wars and developed powerful nuclear arsenals, the two countries avoided direct military conflict.
The United States often opposed Third World movements that it viewed as Soviet-sponsored. American troops fought communist Chinese and North Korean forces in the Korean War of 1950–53. The Soviet Union's 1957 launch of the first artificial satellite and its 1961 launch of the first manned spaceflight initiated a "Space Race" in which the United States became the first nation to land a man on the moon in 1969. A proxy war in Southeast Asia eventually evolved into full American participation, as the Vietnam War.
At home, the U.S. experienced sustained economic expansion and a rapid growth of its population and middle class. Construction of an Interstate Highway System transformed the nation's infrastructure over the following decades. Millions moved from farms and inner cities to large suburban housing developments. In 1959 Hawaii became the 50th and last U.S. state added to the country. The growing Civil Rights Movement used nonviolence to confront segregation and discrimination, with Martin Luther King Jr. becoming a prominent leader and figurehead. A combination of court decisions and legislation, culminating in the Civil Rights Act of 1968, sought to end racial discrimination. Meanwhile, a counterculture movement grew which was fueled by opposition to the Vietnam war, black nationalism, and the sexual revolution.
The launch of a "War on Poverty" expanded entitlements and welfare spending, including the creation of Medicare and Medicaid, two programs that provide health coverage to the elderly and poor, respectively, and the means-tested Food Stamp Program and Aid to Families with Dependent Children.
The 1970s and early 1980s saw the onset of stagflation. After his election in 1980, President Ronald Reagan responded to economic stagnation with free-market oriented reforms. Following the collapse of détente, he abandoned "containment" and initiated the more aggressive "rollback" strategy towards the USSR. After a surge in female labor participation over the previous decade, by 1985 the majority of women aged 16 and over were employed.
The late 1980s brought a "thaw" in relations with the USSR, and its collapse in 1991 finally ended the Cold War. This brought about unipolarity with the U.S. unchallenged as the world's dominant superpower. The concept of Pax Americana, which had appeared in the post-World War II period, gained wide popularity as a term for the post-Cold War new world order.
After the Cold War, the conflict in the Middle East triggered a crisis in 1990, when Iraq under Sadaam Hussein invaded and attempted to annex Kuwait, an ally of the United States. Fearing that the instability would spread to other regions, President George H.W. Bush launched Operation Desert Shield, a defensive force buildup in Saudi Arabia, and Operation Desert Storm, in a staging titled the Gulf War; waged by coalition forces from 34 nations, led by the United States against Iraq ending in the successful expulsion of Iraqi forces from Kuwait, restoring the former monarchy.
Due to the dot-com boom, stable monetary policy under Alan Greenspan, and reduced social welfare spending, the 1990s saw the longest economic expansion in modern U.S. history, ending in 2001. Beginning in 1994, the U.S. entered into the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), linking 450 million people producing $17 trillion worth of goods and services. The goal of the agreement was to eliminate trade and investment barriers among the U.S., Canada, and Mexico by January 1, 2008. Trade among the three partners has soared since NAFTA went into force.
On September 11, 2001, Al-Qaeda terrorists struck the World Trade Center in New York City and the Pentagon near Washington, D.C., killing nearly 3,000 people. In response, the United States launched the War on Terror, which included war in Afghanistan and the 2003–11 Iraq War. In 2007, the Bush administration ordered a major troop surge in the Iraq War, which successfully reduced violence and led to greater stability in the region.
Government policy designed to promote affordable housing, widespread failures in corporate and regulatory governance, and historically low interest rates set by the Federal Reserve led to the mid-2000s housing bubble, which culminated with the 2008 financial crisis, the largest economic contraction in the nation's history since the Great Depression. Barack Obama, the first African American and multiracial president, was elected in 2008 amid the crisis, and subsequently passed stimulus measures and the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act in an attempt to mitigate its negative effects and ensure there would not be a repeat of the crisis. The stimulus facilitated infrastructure improvements and a relative decline in unemployment. Dodd-Frank improved financial stability and consumer protection, although there is evidence it may have had a negative impact on small banks.
In 2010, the Obama administration passed the Affordable Care Act, which made the most sweeping reforms to the nation's healthcare system in nearly five decades, including mandates, subsidies and insurance exchanges. The law caused a significant reduction in the number and percentage of people without health insurance, with 24 million covered during 2016, but remains controversial due to its impact on healthcare costs, insurance premiums, and economic performance. Although the recession reached its trough in June 2009, voters remained frustrated with the slow pace of the economic recovery. The Republicans, who stood in opposition to Obama's policies, won control of the House of Representatives with a landslide in 2010 and control of the Senate in 2014.
American forces in Iraq were withdrawn in large numbers in 2009 and 2010, and the war in the region was declared formally over in December 2011. The withdrawal caused an escalation of sectarian insurgency, leading to the rise of the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant, the successor of al-Qaeda in the region. In 2014, Obama announced a restoration of full diplomatic relations with Cuba for the first time since 1961.[needs update] The next year, the United States as a member of the P5+1 countries signed the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement aimed to slow the development of Iran's nuclear program.
Geography, climate, and environment
The land area of the contiguous United States is 2,959,064 square miles (7,663,940.6 km2). Alaska, separated from the contiguous United States by Canada, is the largest state at 663,268 square miles (1,717,856.2 km2). Hawaii, occupying an archipelago in the central Pacific, southwest of North America, is 10,931 square miles (28,311 km2) in area. The populated territories of Puerto Rico, American Samoa, Guam, Northern Mariana Islands, and U.S. Virgin Islands together cover 9,185 square miles (23,789 km2). Measured by only land area, the United States is third in size behind Russia and China, just ahead of Canada.
The United States is the world's third- or fourth-largest nation by total area (land and water), ranking behind Russia and Canada and just above or below China. The ranking varies depending on how two territories disputed by China and India are counted and how the total size of the United States is measured: calculations range from 3,676,486 square miles (9,522,055.0 km2) to 3,717,813 square miles (9,629,091.5 km2) to 3,796,742 square miles (9,833,516.6 km2).
The coastal plain of the Atlantic seaboard gives way further inland to deciduous forests and the rolling hills of the Piedmont. The Appalachian Mountains divide the eastern seaboard from the Great Lakes and the grasslands of the Midwest. The Mississippi–Missouri River, the world's fourth longest river system, runs mainly north–south through the heart of the country. The flat, fertile prairie of the Great Plains stretches to the west, interrupted by a highland region in the southeast.
The Rocky Mountains, at the western edge of the Great Plains, extend north to south across the country, reaching altitudes higher than 14,000 feet (4,300 m) in Colorado. Farther west are the rocky Great Basin and deserts such as the Chihuahua and Mojave. The Sierra Nevada and Cascade mountain ranges run close to the Pacific coast, both ranges reaching altitudes higher than 14,000 feet (4,300 m). The lowest and highest points in the contiguous United States are in the state of California, and only about 84 miles (135 km) apart. At an elevation of 20,310 feet (6,190.5 m), Alaska's Denali (Mount McKinley) is the highest peak in the country and North America. Active volcanoes are common throughout Alaska's Alexander and Aleutian Islands, and Hawaii consists of volcanic islands. The supervolcano underlying Yellowstone National Park in the Rockies is the continent's largest volcanic feature. The United States has the most ecoregions out of any country in the world.
The United States, with its large size and geographic variety, includes most climate types. To the east of the 100th meridian, the climate ranges from humid continental in the north to humid subtropical in the south. The Great Plains west of the 100th meridian are semi-arid. Much of the Western mountains have an alpine climate. The climate is arid in the Great Basin, desert in the Southwest, Mediterranean in coastal California, and oceanic in coastal Oregon and Washington and southern Alaska. Most of Alaska is subarctic or polar. Hawaii and the southern tip of Florida are tropical, as are the populated territories in the Caribbean and the Pacific. Extreme weather is not uncommon—the states bordering the Gulf of Mexico are prone to hurricanes, and most of the world's tornadoes occur within the country, mainly in Tornado Alley areas in the Midwest and South.
The U.S. ecology is megadiverse: about 17,000 species of vascular plants occur in the contiguous United States and Alaska, and over 1,800 species of flowering plants are found in Hawaii, few of which occur on the mainland. The United States is home to 428 mammal species, 784 bird species, 311 reptile species, and 295 amphibian species. About 91,000 insect species have been described. The bald eagle is both the national bird and national animal of the United States, and is an enduring symbol of the country itself.
There are 59 national parks and hundreds of other federally managed parks, forests, and wilderness areas. Altogether, the government owns about 28% of the country's land area. Most of this is protected, though some is leased for oil and gas drilling, mining, logging, or cattle ranching; about .86% is used for military purposes.
Environmental issues have been on the national agenda since 1970. Environmental controversies include debates on oil and nuclear energy, dealing with air and water pollution, the economic costs of protecting wildlife, logging and deforestation, and international responses to global warming. Many federal and state agencies are involved. The most prominent is the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), created by presidential order in 1970. The idea of wilderness has shaped the management of public lands since 1964, with the Wilderness Act. The Endangered Species Act of 1973 is intended to protect threatened and endangered species and their habitats, which are monitored by the United States Fish and Wildlife Service.
The U.S. Census Bureau estimated the country's population to be 323,425,550 as of April 25, 2016, and to be adding 1 person (net gain) every 13 seconds, or about 6,646 people per day. The U.S. population almost quadrupled during the 20th century, from about 76 million in 1900. The third most populous nation in the world, after China and India, the United States is the only major industrialized nation in which large population increases are projected. In the 1800s the average woman had 7.04 children, by the 1900s this number had decreased to 3.56. Since the early 1970s the birth rate has been below the replacement rate of 2.1 with 1.86 children per woman in 2014. Foreign born immigration has caused the US population to continue its rapid increase with the foreign born population doubling from almost 20 million in 1990 to over 40 million in 2010, representing one third of the population increase. The foreign born population reached 45 million in 2015.[fn 11]
The United States has a birth rate of 13 per 1,000, which is 5 births below the world average. Its population growth rate is positive at 0.7%, higher than that of many developed nations. In fiscal year 2015, over one million immigrants (most of whom entered through family reunification) were granted legal residence. Mexico has been the leading source of new residents since the 1965 Immigration Act. China, India, and the Philippines have been in the top four sending countries every year since the 1990s. As of 2012[update], approximately 11.4 million residents are illegal immigrants. As of 2015, 47% of all immigrants are Hispanic, 26% are Asian, 18% are white and 8% are black. The percentage of immigrants who are Asian is increasing while the percentage who are Hispanic is decreasing.
Minorities (as defined by the Census Bureau as all those beside non-Hispanic, non-multiracial whites) constituted 37.2% of the population in 2012 and over 50% of children under age one, and are projected to constitute the majority by 2044.
According to a survey conducted by the Williams Institute, nine million Americans, or roughly 3.4% of the adult population identify themselves as homosexual, bisexual, or transgender. A 2016 Gallup poll also concluded that 4.1% of adult Americans identified as LGBT. The highest percentage came from the District of Columbia (10%), while the lowest state was North Dakota at 1.7%. In a 2013 survey, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention found that 96.6% of Americans identify as straight, while 1.6% identify as gay or lesbian, and 0.7% identify as being bisexual.
In 2010, the U.S. population included an estimated 5.2 million people with some American Indian or Alaska Native ancestry (2.9 million exclusively of such ancestry) and 1.2 million with some native Hawaiian or Pacific island ancestry (0.5 million exclusively). The census counted more than 19 million people of "Some Other Race" who were "unable to identify with any" of its five official race categories in 2010, over 18.5 million (97%) of whom are of Hispanic ethnicity.
The population growth of Hispanic and Latino Americans (the terms are officially interchangeable) is a major demographic trend. The 50.5 million Americans of Hispanic descent are identified as sharing a distinct "ethnicity" by the Census Bureau; 64% of Hispanic Americans are of Mexican descent. Between 2000 and 2010, the country's Hispanic population increased 43% while the non-Hispanic population rose just 4.9%. Much of this growth is from immigration; in 2007, 12.6% of the U.S. population was foreign-born, with 54% of that figure born in Latin America.[fn 12]
About 82% of Americans live in urban areas (including suburbs); about half of those reside in cities with populations over 50,000. The US has numerous clusters of cities known as megaregions, the largest being the Great Lakes Megalopolis followed by the Northeast Megalopolis and Southern California. In 2008, 273 incorporated municipalities had populations over 100,000, nine cities had more than one million residents, and four global cities had over two million (New York, Los Angeles, Chicago, and Houston). There are 52 metropolitan areas with populations greater than one million. Of the 50 fastest-growing metro areas, 47 are in the West or South. The metro areas of San Bernardino, Dallas, Houston, Atlanta, and Phoenix all grew by more than a million people between 2000 and 2008.
English (American English) is the de facto national language. Although there is no official language at the federal level, some laws—such as U.S. naturalization requirements—standardize English. In 2010, about 230 million, or 80% of the population aged five years and older, spoke only English at home. Spanish, spoken by 12% of the population at home, is the second most common language and the most widely taught second language. Some Americans advocate making English the country's official language, as it is in 32 states.
Both Hawaiian and English are official languages in Hawaii, by state law. Alaska recognizes twenty Native languages as well as English. While neither has an official language, New Mexico has laws providing for the use of both English and Spanish, as Louisiana does for English and French. Other states, such as California, mandate the publication of Spanish versions of certain government documents including court forms.
Several insular territories grant official recognition to their native languages, along with English: Samoan and Chamorro are recognized by American Samoa and Guam, respectively; Carolinian and Chamorro are recognized by the Northern Mariana Islands; Spanish is an official language of Puerto Rico and is more widely spoken than English there.
The most widely taught foreign languages in the United States, in terms of enrollment numbers from kindergarten through university undergraduate studies, are: Spanish (around 7.2 million students), French (1.5 million), and German (500,000). Other commonly taught languages (with 100,000 to 250,000 learners) include Latin, Japanese, ASL, Italian, and Chinese. 18% of all Americans claim to speak at least one language in addition to English.
Christianity is by far the most common religion practiced in the U.S., but other religions are followed, too. In a 2013 survey, 56% of Americans said that religion played a "very important role in their lives", a far higher figure than that of any other wealthy nation. In a 2009 Gallup poll, 42% of Americans said that they attended church weekly or almost weekly; the figures ranged from a low of 23% in Vermont to a high of 63% in Mississippi. Experts, researchers and authors have referred to the United States as a "Protestant nation" or "founded on Protestant principles," specifically emphasizing its Calvinist heritage.
As with other Western countries, the U.S. is becoming less religious. Irreligion is growing rapidly among Americans under 30. Polls show that overall American confidence in organized religion has been declining since the mid to late 1980s, and that younger Americans in particular are becoming increasingly irreligious. According to a 2012 study, the Protestant share of the U.S. population had dropped to 48%, thus ending its status as religious category of the majority for the first time. Americans with no religion have 1.7 children compared to 2.2 among Christians. The unaffiliated are less likely to get married with 37% marrying compared to 52% of Christians.
According to a 2014 survey, 70.6% of adults identified themselves as Christian, Protestant denominations accounted for 46.5%, while Roman Catholicism, at 20.8%, was the largest individual denomination. The total reporting non-Christian religions in 2014 was 5.9%. Other religions include Judaism (1.9%), Islam (0.9%), Buddhism (0.7%), Hinduism (0.7%). The survey also reported that 22.8% of Americans described themselves as agnostic, atheist or simply having no religion, up from 8.2% in 1990. There are also Unitarian Universalist, Baha'i, Sikh, Jain, Shinto, Confucian, Taoist, Druid, Native American, Wiccan, humanist and deist communities.
Protestantism is the largest Christian religious grouping in the United States. Baptists collectively form the largest branch of Protestantism, and the Southern Baptist Convention is the largest individual Protestant denomination. About 26% of Americans identify as Evangelical Protestants, while 15% are Mainline and 7% belong to a traditionally Black church. Roman Catholicism in the United States has its origin primarily in the Spanish and French colonization of the Americas and, in part, in the English Catholic Proprietary of Maryland, It later grew because of Irish, Italian, Polish, German and Hispanic immigration. Rhode Island has the highest percentage of Catholics with 40 percent of the total population. Lutheranism in the U.S. has its origin in immigration from Northern Europe and Germany. North and South Dakota are the only states in which a plurality of the population is Lutheran. Presbyterianism was introduced in North America by Scottish and Ulster Scots immigrants. Although it has spread across the United States, it is heavily concentrated on the East Coast. Dutch Reformed congregations were founded first in New Amsterdam (New York City) before spreading westward. Utah is the only state where Mormonism is the religion of the majority of the population. The Mormon Corridor also extends to parts of Idaho, Nevada and Wyoming.
The Bible Belt is an informal term for a region in the Southern United States in which socially conservative Evangelical Protestantism is a significant part of the culture and Christian church attendance across the denominations is generally higher than the nation's average. By contrast, religion plays the least important role in New England and in the Western United States.
As of 2007[update], 58% of Americans age 18 and over were married, 6% were widowed, 10% were divorced, and 25% had never been married. Women now work mostly outside the home and receive a majority of bachelor's degrees.
The U.S. teenage pregnancy rate is 26.5 per 1,000 women. The rate has declined by 57% since 1991. In 2013, the highest teenage birth rate was in Alabama, and the lowest in Wyoming. Abortion is legal throughout the U.S., owing to Roe v. Wade, a 1973 landmark decision by the Supreme Court of the United States. While the abortion rate is falling, the abortion ratio of 241 per 1,000 live births and abortion rate of 15 per 1,000 women aged 15–44 remain higher than those of most Western nations. In 2013, the average age at first birth was 26 and 40.6% of births were to unmarried women.
The total fertility rate (TFR) was estimated for 2013 at 1.86 births per woman. Adoption in the United States is common and relatively easy from a legal point of view (compared to other Western countries). In 2001, with over 127,000 adoptions, the U.S. accounted for nearly half of the total number of adoptions worldwide. Same-sex marriage is legal nationwide and it is legal for same-sex couples to adopt. Polygamy is illegal throughout the U.S.
Government and politics
The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation. It is a representative democracy, "in which majority rule is tempered by minority rights protected by law". The government is regulated by a system of checks and balances defined by the U.S. Constitution, which serves as the country's supreme legal document. For 2016, the U.S. ranked 21st on the Democracy Index (tied with Italy) and 18th on the Corruption Perceptions Index.
In the American federalist system, citizens are usually subject to three levels of government: federal, state, and local. The local government's duties are commonly split between county and municipal governments. In almost all cases, executive and legislative officials are elected by a plurality vote of citizens by district. There is no proportional representation at the federal level, and it is rare at lower levels.
The federal government is composed of three branches:
The House of Representatives has 435 voting members, each representing a congressional district for a two-year term. House seats are apportioned among the states by population every tenth year. At the 2010 census, seven states had the minimum of one representative, while California, the most populous state, had 53.
The Senate has 100 members with each state having two senators, elected at-large to six-year terms; one third of Senate seats are up for election every other year. The President serves a four-year term and may be elected to the office no more than twice. The President is not elected by direct vote, but by an indirect electoral college system in which the determining votes are apportioned to the states and the District of Columbia. The Supreme Court, led by the Chief Justice of the United States, has nine members, who serve for life.
The state governments are structured in roughly similar fashion; Nebraska uniquely has a unicameral legislature. The governor (chief executive) of each state is directly elected. Some state judges and cabinet officers are appointed by the governors of the respective states, while others are elected by popular vote.
The original text of the Constitution establishes the structure and responsibilities of the federal government and its relationship with the individual states. Article One protects the right to the "great writ" of habeas corpus. The Constitution has been amended 27 times; the first ten amendments, which make up the Bill of Rights, and the Fourteenth Amendment form the central basis of Americans' individual rights. All laws and governmental procedures are subject to judicial review and any law ruled by the courts to be in violation of the Constitution is voided. The principle of judicial review, not explicitly mentioned in the Constitution, was established by the Supreme Court in Marbury v. Madison (1803) in a decision handed down by Chief Justice John Marshall.
The United States is a federal republic of 50 states, a federal district, five territories and eleven uninhabited island possessions. The states and territories are the principal administrative districts in the country. These are divided into subdivisions of counties and independent cities. The District of Columbia is a federal district that contains the capital of the United States, Washington DC. The states and the District of Columbia choose the President of the United States. Each state has presidential electors equal to the number of their Representatives and Senators in Congress; the District of Columbia has three.
Congressional Districts are reapportioned among the states following each decennial Census of Population. Each state then draws single member districts to conform with the census apportionment. The total number of Representatives is 435, and delegate Members of Congress represent the District of Columbia and the five major U.S. territories.
The United States also observes tribal sovereignty of the American Indian nations to a limited degree, as it does with the states' sovereignty. American Indians are U.S. citizens and tribal lands are subject to the jurisdiction of the U.S. Congress and the federal courts. Like the states they have a great deal of autonomy, but also like the states, tribes are not allowed to make war, engage in their own foreign relations, or print and issue currency.
Parties and elections
The United States has operated under a two-party system for most of its history. For elective offices at most levels, state-administered primary elections choose the major party nominees for subsequent general elections. Since the general election of 1856, the major parties have been the Democratic Party, founded in 1824, and the Republican Party, founded in 1854. Since the Civil War, only one third-party presidential candidate—former president Theodore Roosevelt, running as a Progressive in 1912—has won as much as 20% of the popular vote. The President and Vice-president are elected through the Electoral College system.
Within American political culture, the center-right Republican Party is considered "conservative" and the center-left Democratic Party is considered "liberal". The states of the Northeast and West Coast and some of the Great Lakes states, known as "blue states", are relatively liberal. The "red states" of the South and parts of the Great Plains and Rocky Mountains are relatively conservative.
Republican Donald Trump, the winner of the 2016 presidential election, is currently serving as the 45th President of the United States. Current leadership in the Senate includes Republican Vice President Mike Pence, Republican President Pro Tempore Orrin Hatch, Majority Leader Mitch McConnell, and Minority Leader Chuck Schumer. Leadership in the House includes Speaker of the House Paul Ryan, Majority Leader Kevin McCarthy, and Minority Leader Nancy Pelosi.
In the 115th United States Congress, both the House of Representatives and the Senate are controlled by the Republican Party. The Senate currently consists of 52 Republicans, and 46 Democrats with 2 Independents who caucus with the Democrats; the House consists of 241 Republicans and 194 Democrats. In state governorships, there are 33 Republicans, 16 Democrats, and 1 Independent. Among the DC mayor and the 5 territorial governors, there are 2 Republicans, 1 Democrat, 1 New Progressive, and 2 Independents.
The United States has an established structure of foreign relations. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council, and New York City is home to the United Nations Headquarters. It is a member of the G7, G20, and Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Almost all countries have embassies in Washington, D.C., and many have consulates around the country. Likewise, nearly all nations host American diplomatic missions. However, Iran, North Korea, Bhutan, and the Republic of China (Taiwan) do not have formal diplomatic relations with the United States (although the U.S. still maintains relations with Taiwan and supplies it with military equipment).
The United States has a "Special Relationship" with the United Kingdom and strong ties with Canada, Australia, New Zealand, the Philippines, Japan, South Korea, Israel, and several European Union countries, including France, Italy, Germany, and Spain. It works closely with fellow NATO members on military and security issues and with its neighbors through the Organization of American States and free trade agreements such as the trilateral North American Free Trade Agreement with Canada and Mexico. In 2008, the United States spent a net $25.4 billion on official development assistance, the most in the world. As a share of America's large gross national income (GNI), however, the U.S. contribution of 0.18% ranked last among 22 donor states. By contrast, private overseas giving by Americans is relatively generous.
The U.S. exercises full international defense authority and responsibility for three sovereign nations through Compact of Free Association with Micronesia, the Marshall Islands and Palau. These are Pacific island nations, once part of the U.S.-administered Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands after World War II, which gained independence in subsequent years.
Taxes in the United States are levied at the federal, state, and local government levels. These include taxes on income, payroll, property, sales, imports, estates and gifts, as well as various fees. In 2010 taxes collected by federal, state and municipal governments amounted to 24.8% of GDP. During FY2012, the federal government collected approximately $2.45 trillion in tax revenue, up $147 billion or 6% versus FY2011 revenues of $2.30 trillion. Primary receipt categories included individual income taxes ($1,132B or 47%), Social Security/Social Insurance taxes ($845B or 35%), and corporate taxes ($242B or 10%). Based on CBO estimates, under 2013 tax law the top 1% will be paying the highest average tax rates since 1979, while other income groups will remain at historic lows.
U.S. taxation is generally progressive, especially the federal income taxes, and is among the most progressive in the developed world. The highest 10% of income earners pay a majority of federal taxes, and about half of all taxes. Payroll taxes for Social Security are a flat regressive tax, with no tax charged on income above $118,500 (for 2015 and 2016) and no tax at all paid on unearned income from things such as stocks and capital gains. The historic reasoning for the regressive nature of the payroll tax is that entitlement programs have not been viewed as welfare transfers. However, according to the Congressional Budget Office the net effect of Social Security is that the benefit to tax ratio ranges from roughly 70% for the top earnings quintile to about 170% for the lowest earning quintile, making the system progressive.
The top 10% paid 51.8% of total federal taxes in 2009, and the top 1%, with 13.4% of pre-tax national income, paid 22.3% of federal taxes. In 2013 the Tax Policy Center projected total federal effective tax rates of 35.5% for the top 1%, 27.2% for the top quintile, 13.8% for the middle quintile, and −2.7% for the bottom quintile. The incidence of corporate income tax has been a matter of considerable ongoing controversy for decades. State and local taxes vary widely, but are generally less progressive than federal taxes as they rely heavily on broadly borne regressive sales and property taxes that yield less volatile revenue streams, though their consideration does not eliminate the progressive nature of overall taxation.
During FY 2012, the federal government spent $3.54 trillion on a budget or cash basis, down $60 billion or 1.7% vs. FY 2011 spending of $3.60 trillion. Major categories of FY 2012 spending included: Medicare & Medicaid ($802B or 23% of spending), Social Security ($768B or 22%), Defense Department ($670B or 19%), non-defense discretionary ($615B or 17%), other mandatory ($461B or 13%) and interest ($223B or 6%).
The President holds the title of commander-in-chief of the nation's armed forces and appoints its leaders, the Secretary of Defense and the Joint Chiefs of Staff. The United States Department of Defense administers the armed forces, including the Army, Marine Corps, Navy, and Air Force. The Coast Guard is run by the Department of Homeland Security in peacetime and by the Department of the Navy during times of war. In 2008, the armed forces had 1.4 million personnel on active duty. The Reserves and National Guard brought the total number of troops to 2.3 million. The Department of Defense also employed about 700,000 civilians, not including contractors.
Military service is voluntary, though conscription may occur in wartime through the Selective Service System. American forces can be rapidly deployed by the Air Force's large fleet of transport aircraft, the Navy's 11 active aircraft carriers, and Marine expeditionary units at sea with the Navy's Atlantic and Pacific fleets. The military operates 865 bases and facilities abroad, and maintains deployments greater than 100 active duty personnel in 25 foreign countries.
The military budget of the United States in 2011 was more than $700 billion, 41% of global military spending and equal to the next 14 largest national military expenditures combined. At 4.7% of GDP, the rate was the second-highest among the top 15 military spenders, after Saudi Arabia. U.S. defense spending as a percentage of GDP ranked 23rd globally in 2012 according to the CIA. Defense's share of U.S. spending has generally declined in recent decades, from Cold War peaks of 14.2% of GDP in 1953 and 69.5% of federal outlays in 1954 to 4.7% of GDP and 18.8% of federal outlays in 2011.
The proposed base Department of Defense budget for 2012, $553 billion, was a 4.2% increase over 2011; an additional $118 billion was proposed for the military campaigns in Iraq and Afghanistan. The last American troops serving in Iraq departed in December 2011; 4,484 service members were killed during the Iraq War. Approximately 90,000 U.S. troops were serving in Afghanistan in April 2012; by November 8, 2013 2,285 had been killed during the War in Afghanistan.
Law enforcement and crime
Law enforcement in the United States is primarily the responsibility of local police and sheriff's departments, with state police providing broader services. The New York City Police Department (NYPD) is the largest in the country. Federal agencies such as the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) and the U.S. Marshals Service have specialized duties, including protecting civil rights, national security and enforcing U.S. federal courts' rulings and federal laws. At the federal level and in almost every state, a legal system operates on a common law. State courts conduct most criminal trials; federal courts handle certain designated crimes as well as certain appeals from the state criminal courts. Plea bargaining in the United States is very common; the vast majority of criminal cases in the country are settled by plea bargain rather than jury trial.
In 2015, there were 15,696 murders which was 1,532 more than in 2014, a 10.8 per cent increase, the largest since 1971. The murder rate in 2015 was 4.9 per 100,000 people. In 2016 the murder rate increased by 8.6%, with 17,250 murders that year. The national clearance rate for homicides in 2015 was 64.1%, compared to 90% in 1965. In 2012 there were 4.7 murders per 100,000 persons in the United States, a 54% decline from the modern peak of 10.2 in 1980. In 2001–2, the United States had above-average levels of violent crime and particularly high levels of gun violence compared to other developed nations. A cross-sectional analysis of the World Health Organization Mortality Database from 2010 showed that United States "homicide rates were 7.0 times higher than in other high-income countries, driven by a gun homicide rate that was 25.2 times higher." Gun ownership rights continue to be the subject of contentious political debate.
From 1980 through 2008 males represented 77% of homicide victims and 90% of offenders. Blacks committed 52.5% of all homicides during that span, at a rate almost eight times that of whites ("whites" includes most Hispanics), and were victimized at a rate six times that of whites. Most homicides were intraracial, with 93% of black victims killed by blacks and 84% of white victims killed by whites. In 2012, Louisiana had the highest rate of murder and non-negligent manslaughter in the U.S., and New Hampshire the lowest. The FBI's Uniform Crime Reports estimates that there were 3,246 violent and property crimes per 100,000 residents in 2012, for a total of over 9 million total crimes.
Capital punishment is sanctioned in the United States for certain federal and military crimes, and used in 31 states. No executions took place from 1967 to 1977, owing in part to a U.S. Supreme Court ruling striking down arbitrary imposition of the death penalty. In 1976, that Court ruled that, under appropriate circumstances, capital punishment may constitutionally be imposed. Since the decision there have been more than 1,300 executions, a majority of these taking place in three states: Texas, Virginia, and Oklahoma. Meanwhile, several states have either abolished or struck down death penalty laws. In 2015, the country had the fifth-highest number of executions in the world, following China, Iran, Pakistan and Saudi Arabia.
The United States has the highest documented incarceration rate and total prison population in the world. At the start of 2008, more than 2.3 million people were incarcerated, more than one in every 100 adults. In December 2012, the combined U.S. adult correctional systems supervised about 6,937,600 offenders. About 1 in every 35 adult residents in the United States was under some form of correctional supervision in December 2012, the lowest rate observed since 1997. The prison population has quadrupled since 1980, and state and local spending on prisons and jails has grown three times as much as that spent on public education during the same period. However, the imprisonment rate for all prisoners sentenced to more than a year in state or federal facilities is 478 per 100,000 in 2013 and the rate for pre-trial/remand prisoners is 153 per 100,000 residents in 2012. The country's high rate of incarceration is largely due to changes in sentencing guidelines and drug policies. According to the Federal Bureau of Prisons, the majority of inmates held in federal prisons are convicted of drug offenses. The privatization of prisons and prison services which began in the 1980s has been a subject of debate. In 2008, Louisiana had the highest incarceration rate, and Maine the lowest.
The United States has a capitalist mixed economy which is fueled by abundant natural resources and high productivity. According to the International Monetary Fund, the U.S. GDP of $16.8 trillion constitutes 24% of the gross world product at market exchange rates and over 19% of the gross world product at purchasing power parity (PPP).
The nominal GDP of the U.S. is estimated to be $17.528 trillion as of 2014[update] From 1983 to 2008, U.S. real compounded annual GDP growth was 3.3%, compared to a 2.3% weighted average for the rest of the G7. The country ranks ninth in the world in nominal GDP per capita (first in the Americas) and sixth in GDP per capita at PPP. The U.S. dollar is the world's primary reserve currency. The U.S. economy is also the fastest growing in the Americas.
The United States is the largest importer of goods and second-largest exporter, though exports per capita are relatively low. In 2010, the total U.S. trade deficit was $635 billion. Canada, China, Mexico, Japan, and Germany are its top trading partners. In 2010, oil was the largest import commodity, while transportation equipment was the country's largest export. Japan is the largest foreign holder of U.S. public debt. The largest holder of the U.S. debt are American entities, including federal government accounts and the Federal Reserve, who hold the majority of the debt.[fn 15]
In 2009, the private sector was estimated to constitute 86.4% of the economy, with federal government activity accounting for 4.3% and state and local government activity (including federal transfers) the remaining 9.3%. The number of employees at all levels of government outnumber those in manufacturing by 1.7 to 1. While its economy has reached a postindustrial level of development and its service sector constitutes 67.8% of GDP, the United States remains an industrial power. The leading business field by gross business receipts is wholesale and retail trade; by net income it is manufacturing. In the franchising business model, McDonald's and Subway are the two most recognized brands in the world. Coca-Cola is the most recognized soft drink company in the world.
Chemical products are the leading manufacturing field. The United States is the largest producer of oil in the world, as well as its second-largest importer. It is the world's number one producer of electrical and nuclear energy, as well as liquid natural gas, sulfur, phosphates, and salt. The National Mining Association provides data pertaining to coal and minerals that include beryllium, copper, lead, magnesium, zinc, titanium and others.
Agriculture accounts for just under 1% of GDP, yet the United States is the world's top producer of corn and soybeans. The National Agricultural Statistics Service maintains agricultural statistics for products that include peanuts, oats, rye, wheat, rice, cotton, corn, barley, hay, sunflowers, and oilseeds. In addition, the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) provides livestock statistics regarding beef, poultry, pork, and dairy products. The country is the primary developer and grower of genetically modified food, representing half of the world's biotech crops.
Consumer spending comprises 68% of the U.S. economy in 2015. In August 2010, the American labor force consisted of 154.1 million people. With 21.2 million people, government is the leading field of employment. The largest private employment sector is health care and social assistance, with 16.4 million people. About 12% of workers are unionized, compared to 30% in Western Europe. The World Bank ranks the United States first in the ease of hiring and firing workers. The United States is ranked among the top three in the Global Competitiveness Report as well. It has a smaller welfare state and redistributes less income through government action than European nations tend to.
The United States is the only advanced economy that does not guarantee its workers paid vacation and is one of just a few countries in the world without paid family leave as a legal right, with the others being Papua New Guinea, Suriname and Liberia. While federal law currently does not require sick leave, it is a common benefit for government workers and full-time employees at corporations. 74% of full-time American workers get paid sick leave, according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, although only 24% of part-time workers get the same benefits. In 2009, the United States had the third-highest workforce productivity per person in the world, behind Luxembourg and Norway. It was fourth in productivity per hour, behind those two countries and the Netherlands.
The 2008–2012 global recession significantly affected the United States, with output still below potential according to the Congressional Budget Office. It brought high unemployment (which has been decreasing but remains above pre-recession levels), along with low consumer confidence, the continuing decline in home values and increase in foreclosures and personal bankruptcies, an escalating federal debt crisis, inflation, and rising petroleum and food prices.
Income, poverty and wealth
Americans have the highest average household and employee income among OECD nations, and in 2007 had the second-highest median household income. According to the Census Bureau, median household income was $59,039 in 2016.  Accounting for 4.4% of the global population, Americans collectively possess 41.6% of the world's total wealth, and Americans make up roughly half of the world's population of millionaires. The Global Food Security Index ranked the U.S. number one for food affordability and overall food security in March 2013. Americans on average have over twice as much living space per dwelling and per person as European Union residents, and more than every EU nation. For 2013 the United Nations Development Programme ranked the United States 5th among 187 countries in its Human Development Index and 28th in its inequality-adjusted HDI (IHDI).
After years of stagnant growth, in 2016, according to the Census, median household income reached a record high after two consecutive years of record growth, although income inequality remains at record highs with top fifth of earners taking home more than half of all overall income. There has been a widening gap between productivity and median incomes since the 1970s. However, the gap between total compensation and productivity is not as wide because of increased employee benefits such as health insurance. The rise in the share of total annual income received by the top 1 percent, which has more than doubled from 9 percent in 1976 to 20 percent in 2011, has significantly affected income inequality, leaving the United States with one of the widest income distributions among OECD nations. The top 1 percent of income-earners accounted for 52 percent of the income gains from 2009 to 2015, where income is defined as market income excluding government transfers, The extent and relevance of income inequality is a matter of debate.[disputed ]
Wealth, like income and taxes, is highly concentrated; the richest 10% of the adult population possess 72% of the country's household wealth, while the bottom half claim only 2%. According to a September 2017 report by the Federal Reserve, the top 1% controlled 38.6% of the country's wealth in 2016. Between June 2007 and November 2008 the global recession led to falling asset prices around the world. Assets owned by Americans lost about a quarter of their value. Since peaking in the second quarter of 2007, household wealth was down $14 trillion, but has since increased $14 trillion over 2006 levels. At the end of 2014, household debt amounted to $11.8 trillion, down from $13.8 trillion at the end of 2008.
There were about 578,424 sheltered and unsheltered homeless persons in the U.S. in January 2014, with almost two-thirds staying in an emergency shelter or transitional housing program. In 2011 16.7 million children lived in food-insecure households, about 35% more than 2007 levels, though only 1.1% of U.S. children, or 845,000, saw reduced food intake or disrupted eating patterns at some point during the year, and most cases were not chronic. According to a 2014 report by the Census Bureau, one in five young adults lives in poverty today, up from one in seven in 1980.
Personal transportation is dominated by automobiles, which operate on a network of 4 million miles (6.4 million km) of public roads, including one of the world's longest highway systems at 57,000 miles (91700 km). The world's second-largest automobile market, the United States has the highest rate of per-capita vehicle ownership in the world, with 765 vehicles per 1,000 Americans. About 40% of personal vehicles are vans, SUVs, or light trucks. The average American adult (accounting for all drivers and non-drivers) spends 55 minutes driving every day, traveling 29 miles (47 km).
Mass transit accounts for 9% of total U.S. work trips. Transport of goods by rail is extensive, though relatively low numbers of passengers (approximately 31 million annually) use intercity rail to travel, partly because of the low population density throughout much of the U.S. interior. However, ridership on Amtrak, the national intercity passenger rail system, grew by almost 37% between 2000 and 2010. Also, light rail development has increased in recent years. Bicycle usage for work commutes is minimal.
The civil airline industry is entirely privately owned and has been largely deregulated since 1978, while most major airports are publicly owned. The three largest airlines in the world by passengers carried are U.S.-based; American Airlines is number one after its 2013 acquisition by US Airways. Of the world's 50 busiest passenger airports, 16 are in the United States, including the busiest, Hartsfield–Jackson Atlanta International Airport, and the fourth-busiest, O'Hare International Airport in Chicago. In the aftermath of the 9/11 attacks of 2001, the Transportation Security Administration was created to police airports and commercial airliners.
The United States energy market is about 29,000 terawatt hours per year. Energy consumption per capita is 7.8 tons (7076 kg) of oil equivalent per year, the 10th-highest rate in the world. In 2005, 40% of this energy came from petroleum, 23% from coal, and 22% from natural gas. The remainder was supplied by nuclear power and renewable energy sources. The United States is the world's largest consumer of petroleum.The United States has 27% of global coal reserves. It is the world's largest producer of natural gas and crude oil.
For decades, nuclear power has played a limited role relative to many other developed countries, in part because of public perception in the wake of a 1979 accident. In 2007, several applications for new nuclear plants were filed.
Water supply and sanitation
Issues that affect water supply in the United States include droughts in the West, water scarcity, pollution, a backlog of investment, concerns about the affordability of water for the poorest, and a rapidly retiring workforce. Increased variability and intensity of rainfall as a result of climate change is expected to produce both more severe droughts and flooding, with potentially serious consequences for water supply and for pollution from combined sewer overflows.[fn 16]
American public education is operated by state and local governments, regulated by the United States Department of Education through restrictions on federal grants. In most states, children are required to attend school from the age of six or seven (generally, kindergarten or first grade) until they turn 18 (generally bringing them through twelfth grade, the end of high school); some states allow students to leave school at 16 or 17.
About 12% of children are enrolled in parochial or nonsectarian private schools. Just over 2% of children are homeschooled. The U.S. spends more on education per student than any nation in the world, spending more than $11,000 per elementary student in 2010 and more than $12,000 per high school student. Some 80% of U.S. college students attend public universities.
The United States has many competitive private and public institutions of higher education. The majority of the world's top universities listed by different ranking organizations are in the U.S. There are also local community colleges with generally more open admission policies, shorter academic programs, and lower tuition. Of Americans 25 and older, 84.6% graduated from high school, 52.6% attended some college, 27.2% earned a bachelor's degree, and 9.6% earned graduate degrees. The basic literacy rate is approximately 99%. The United Nations assigns the United States an Education Index of 0.97, tying it for 12th in the world.
As for public expenditures on higher education, the U.S. trails some other OECD nations but spends more per student than the OECD average, and more than all nations in combined public and private spending. As of 2012[update], student loan debt exceeded one trillion dollars, more than Americans owe on credit cards.
The United States is home to many cultures and a wide variety of ethnic groups, traditions, and values. Aside from the Native American, Native Hawaiian, and Native Alaskan populations, nearly all Americans or their ancestors settled or immigrated within the past five centuries. Mainstream American culture is a Western culture largely derived from the traditions of European immigrants with influences from many other sources, such as traditions brought by slaves from Africa. More recent immigration from Asia and especially Latin America has added to a cultural mix that has been described as both a homogenizing melting pot, and a heterogeneous salad bowl in which immigrants and their descendants retain distinctive cultural characteristics.
Core American culture was established by Protestant British colonists and shaped by the frontier settlement process, with the traits derived passed down to descendants and transmitted to immigrants through assimilation. Americans have traditionally been characterized by a strong work ethic, competitiveness, and individualism, as well as a unifying belief in an "American creed" emphasizing liberty, equality, private property, democracy, rule of law, and a preference for limited government. Americans are extremely charitable by global standards. According to a 2006 British study, Americans gave 1.67% of GDP to charity, more than any other nation studied, more than twice the second place British figure of 0.73%, and around twelve times the French figure of 0.14%.
The American Dream, or the perception that Americans enjoy high social mobility, plays a key role in attracting immigrants. Whether this perception is realistic has been a topic of debate. While mainstream culture holds that the United States is a classless society, scholars identify significant differences between the country's social classes, affecting socialization, language, and values. Americans' self-images, social viewpoints, and cultural expectations are associated with their occupations to an unusually close degree. While Americans tend greatly to value socioeconomic achievement, being ordinary or average is generally seen as a positive attribute.
Mainstream American cuisine is similar to that in other Western countries. Wheat is the primary cereal grain with about three-quarters of grain products made of wheat flour and many dishes use indigenous ingredients, such as turkey, venison, potatoes, sweet potatoes, corn, squash, and maple syrup which were consumed by Native Americans and early European settlers. These home grown foods are part of a shared national menu on one of America's most popular holidays; Thanksgiving, when some Americans make traditional foods to celebrate the occasion.
Characteristic dishes such as apple pie, fried chicken, pizza, hamburgers, and hot dogs derive from the recipes of various immigrants. French fries, Mexican dishes such as burritos and tacos, and pasta dishes freely adapted from Italian sources are widely consumed. Americans drink three times as much coffee as tea. Marketing by U.S. industries is largely responsible for making orange juice and milk ubiquitous breakfast beverages.
American eating habits owe a great deal to that of their British culinary roots with some variations. Although American lands could grow newer vegetables that Britain could not, most colonists would not eat these new foods until accepted by Europeans. Over time American foods changed to a point that food critic, John L. Hess stated in 1972: "Our founding fathers were as far superior to our present political leaders in the quality of their food as they were in the quality of their prose and intelligence".
The American fast food industry, the world's largest, pioneered the drive-through format in the 1940s. Fast food consumption has sparked health concerns. During the 1980s and 1990s, Americans' caloric intake rose 24%; frequent dining at fast food outlets is associated with what public health officials call the American "obesity epidemic". Highly sweetened soft drinks are widely popular, and sugared beverages account for nine percent of American caloric intake.
Literature, philosophy, and the arts
In the 18th and early 19th centuries, American art and literature took most of its cues from Europe. Writers such as Nathaniel Hawthorne, Edgar Allan Poe, and Henry David Thoreau established a distinctive American literary voice by the middle of the 19th century. Mark Twain and poet Walt Whitman were major figures in the century's second half; Emily Dickinson, virtually unknown during her lifetime, is now recognized as an essential American poet. A work seen as capturing fundamental aspects of the national experience and character—such as Herman Melville's Moby-Dick (1851), Twain's The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn (1885), F. Scott Fitzgerald's The Great Gatsby (1925) and Harper Lee's To Kill a Mockingbird (1960)—may be dubbed the "Great American Novel".
Twelve U.S. citizens have won the Nobel Prize in Literature, most recently Bob Dylan in 2016. William Faulkner, Ernest Hemingway and John Steinbeck are often named among the most influential writers of the 20th century. Popular literary genres such as the Western and hardboiled crime fiction developed in the United States. The Beat Generation writers opened up new literary approaches, as have postmodernist authors such as John Barth, Thomas Pynchon, and Don DeLillo.
The transcendentalists, led by Thoreau and Ralph Waldo Emerson, established the first major American philosophical movement. After the Civil War, Charles Sanders Peirce and then William James and John Dewey were leaders in the development of pragmatism. In the 20th century, the work of W. V. O. Quine and Richard Rorty, and later Noam Chomsky, brought analytic philosophy to the fore of American philosophical academia. John Rawls and Robert Nozick led a revival of political philosophy. Cornel West and Judith Butler have led a continental tradition in American philosophical academia. Chicago school economists like Milton Friedman, James M. Buchanan, and Thomas Sowell have affected various fields in social and political philosophy.
In the visual arts, the Hudson River School was a mid-19th-century movement in the tradition of European naturalism. The realist paintings of Thomas Eakins are now widely celebrated. The 1913 Armory Show in New York City, an exhibition of European modernist art, shocked the public and transformed the U.S. art scene. Georgia O'Keeffe, Marsden Hartley, and others experimented with new, individualistic styles. Major artistic movements such as the abstract expressionism of Jackson Pollock and Willem de Kooning and the pop art of Andy Warhol and Roy Lichtenstein developed largely in the United States. The tide of modernism and then postmodernism has brought fame to American architects such as Frank Lloyd Wright, Philip Johnson, and Frank Gehry. Americans have long been important in the modern artistic medium of photography, with major photographers including Alfred Stieglitz, Edward Steichen, and Ansel Adams.
One of the first major promoters of American theater was impresario P. T. Barnum, who began operating a lower Manhattan entertainment complex in 1841. The team of Harrigan and Hart produced a series of popular musical comedies in New York starting in the late 1870s. In the 20th century, the modern musical form emerged on Broadway; the songs of musical theater composers such as Irving Berlin, Cole Porter, and Stephen Sondheim have become pop standards. Playwright Eugene O'Neill won the Nobel literature prize in 1936; other acclaimed U.S. dramatists include multiple Pulitzer Prize winners Tennessee Williams, Edward Albee, and August Wilson.
Though little known at the time, Charles Ives's work of the 1910s established him as the first major U.S. composer in the classical tradition, while experimentalists such as Henry Cowell and John Cage created a distinctive American approach to classical composition. Aaron Copland and George Gershwin developed a new synthesis of popular and classical music.
The rhythmic and lyrical styles of African-American music have deeply influenced American music at large, distinguishing it from European traditions. Elements from folk idioms such as the blues and what is now known as old-time music were adopted and transformed into popular genres with global audiences. Jazz was developed by innovators such as Louis Armstrong and Duke Ellington early in the 20th century. Country music developed in the 1920s, and rhythm and blues in the 1940s.
Elvis Presley and Chuck Berry were among the mid-1950s pioneers of rock and roll. In the 1960s, Bob Dylan emerged from the folk revival to become one of America's most celebrated songwriters and James Brown led the development of funk. More recent American creations include hip hop and house music. American pop stars such as Presley, Michael Jackson, and Madonna have become global celebrities, as have contemporary musical artists such as Taylor Swift, Britney Spears, Katy Perry, and Beyoncé as well as hip hop artists Jay-Z, Eminem and Kanye West. Rock bands such as Metallica, the Eagles, and Aerosmith are among the highest grossing in worldwide sales.
Hollywood, a northern district of Los Angeles, California, is one of the leaders in motion picture production. The world's first commercial motion picture exhibition was given in New York City in 1894, using Thomas Edison's Kinetoscope. The next year saw the first commercial screening of a projected film, also in New York, and the United States was in the forefront of sound film's development in the following decades. Since the early 20th century, the U.S. film industry has largely been based in and around Hollywood, although in the 21st century an increasing number of films are not made there, and film companies have been subject to the forces of globalization.
Director D. W. Griffith, the top American filmmaker during the silent film period, was central to the development of film grammar, and producer/entrepreneur Walt Disney was a leader in both animated film and movie merchandising. Directors such as John Ford redefined the image of the American Old West and history, and, like others such as John Huston, broadened the possibilities of cinema with location shooting, with great influence on subsequent directors. The industry enjoyed its golden years, in what is commonly referred to as the "Golden Age of Hollywood", from the early sound period until the early 1960s, with screen actors such as John Wayne and Marilyn Monroe becoming iconic figures. In the 1970s, film directors such as Martin Scorsese, Francis Ford Coppola and Robert Altman were a vital component in what became known as "New Hollywood" or the "Hollywood Renaissance", grittier films influenced by French and Italian realist pictures of the post-war period. Since, directors such as Steven Spielberg, George Lucas and James Cameron have gained renown for their blockbuster films, often characterized by high production costs, and in return, high earnings at the box office, with Cameron's Avatar (2009) earning more than $2 billion.
Notable films topping the American Film Institute's AFI 100 list include Orson Welles's Citizen Kane (1941), which is frequently cited as the greatest film of all time, Casablanca (1942), The Godfather (1972), Gone with the Wind (1939), Lawrence of Arabia (1962), The Wizard of Oz (1939), The Graduate (1967), On the Waterfront (1954), Schindler's List (1993), Singin' in the Rain (1952), It's a Wonderful Life (1946) and Sunset Boulevard (1950). The Academy Awards, popularly known as the Oscars, have been held annually by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences since 1929, and the Golden Globe Awards have been held annually since January 1944.
American football is by several measures the most popular spectator sport; the National Football League (NFL) has the highest average attendance of any sports league in the world, and the Super Bowl is watched by millions globally. Baseball has been regarded as the U.S. national sport since the late 19th century, with Major League Baseball (MLB) being the top league. Basketball and ice hockey are the country's next two leading professional team sports, with the top leagues being the National Basketball Association (NBA) and the National Hockey League (NHL). These four major sports, when played professionally, each occupy a season at different, but overlapping, times of the year. College football and basketball attract large audiences. In soccer, the country hosted the 1994 FIFA World Cup, the men's national soccer team qualified for ten World Cups and the women's team has won the FIFA Women's World Cup three times; Major League Soccer is the sport's highest league in the United States (featuring 19 American and 3 Canadian teams). The market for professional sports in the United States is roughly $69 billion, roughly 50% larger than that of all of Europe, the Middle East, and Africa combined.
Eight Olympic Games have taken place in the United States. As of 2014, the United States has won 2,400 medals at the Summer Olympic Games, more than any other country, and 281 in the Winter Olympic Games, the second most behind Norway. While most major U.S. sports have evolved out of European practices, basketball, volleyball, skateboarding, and snowboarding are American inventions, some of which have become popular in other countries. Lacrosse and surfing arose from Native American and Native Hawaiian activities that predate Western contact. The most watched individual sports are golf and auto racing, particularly