آسیای شرقی یا شرق آسیا منطقهای از آسیا است که بر پایهٔ جغرافیا یا فرهنگ تعریف میشود. از دید جغرافیایی این منطقه شامل کشورهای چین، مغولستان، کره (شمالی و جنوبی)، تایوان، ژاپن و مناطق خودمختارهنگ کنگ و ماکائو ۱۲ میلیون کیلومترمربع یا ۲۶٫۵٪ از خاک قارهٔ آسیا را شامل میشود که تقریباً ۱۴ درصد بزرگتر از مساحت کل قاره اروپا میباشد.
بیش از ۱/۵ میلیارد نفر در این منطقه از جهان زندگی میکنند که حدود ۳۸٪ جمعیت آسیا و ۲۲٪ یا بیش از یکپنجم جمعیت جهان است. این منطقه با تراکم جمعیتی ۱۳۳ نفر در هر کیلومتر مربع در قیاس با میانگین جهانی ۴۵ نفر در هر کیلومتر مربع (سه برابر) یکی از پرجمعیتترین مناطق جهان بهشمار میرود. در این بین، مغولستان کمترین تراکم جمعیتی را دارد. البته بیشتر این جمعیت در مناطق ساحلی متمرکز است کما این که مغولستان و نواحی غربی از تراکم جمعیت بسیار پایینی برخوردار هستند به گونهای که مغولستان کمتراکمترین کشور مستقل جهان به حساب میآید.
از منظر تاریخی بسیاری از جوامع آسیای شرقی بخشی از دایرهٔ فرهنگ چینی بودهاند و واژگان و خط آسیای شرقی بیشتر مربوط به زبان چینی باستان و خط چینی هستند. ادیان عمده شامل بودیسم، کنفسیانیسم یا نوکنفسیانیسم، تائوگرایی، ادیان قومی چین، شینتو در ژاپن، شمنیسم کره میباشد. این ترکیب از زبان، فلسفهٔ سیاسی و دین (همراه با هنر، معماری، مراسمها و غیره)، با ساختار جغرافیایی آسیای شرقی در بیشتر نقاط مشترک میباشد.
آسیای شرقی عبارت نوین برای نام سنتی «شرق دور» است که جایگاه جغرافیایی منطقه را نسبت به اروپا تا به خود آسیا میسنجد.
سلسلههای حکومتی چینی مدت طویلی بر امور فرهنگی، تجارتی و نظامی منطقه سیطره داشتهاند به گونهای که شواهد به دست آمده نشان میدهد حکام ژاپن و کره نیز به آنها خراج پرداخت میکردهاند. نشانهایی نیز از تبادلات فرهنگی بین چینیها و قدرتهای منطقهای و همسایهها وجود دارد.
از زمانی که ارتباطات با دنیای غرب قوت پیدا کرد، قدرت چینیها شروع به اضمحلال نمود. در همین زمان ژاپن که از زیر یوغ چینیها خارج شده بود جایگاه خود را به عنوان کشوری مستقل تثبیت کرد. در جریان جنگ جهانی دوم کره، تایوان، بیشتر شرق چین، هنک کنگ و ویتنام به کنترل ژاپنیها درآمد. با شکست ژاپن در این جنگ کره مستقل شد و پس از شکست جمهوری خواهان از کمونیستها در چین، تایوان به عنوان جمهوری چین تشکیل گردید.
Like the Ancient Greeks and Romans and their profound influence on Europe and the Western World, China already possessed an advanced civilization nearly 1500+ years before its neighbors (c. 2000 BC) and through various Chinese dynasties has exerted cultural, economic, technological, political, and military influence across East Asia up to the present. For many centuries, especially between the 7-14th centuries, China stood as East Asia's most advanced civilization, commanding influence across the region up until the early modern period.
China became the first literate nation in East Asia and has also provided Japan, Vietnam, and Korea with many loanwords and linguistic influences rooted in their writing systems (see Chinese characters). From around 200 BC to 200 AD, the Han dynasty hosted the largest unified population in East Asia, the most literate and urbanized as well as being the most technologically and culturally advanced civilization in the region. And China has always been the most populous epicenter in East Asia as well.
China's impact and influence on Korea began with the Han dynasty's northeastern expansion in 108 BC when the Han Chinese conquered the northern part of the Korean peninsula and established a province called Lelang. Chinese influence would soon take root in Korea through the inclusion of the Chinese writing system, monetary system, rice culture, and Confucian political institutions.
Jōmon society in ancient Japan incorporated wet-rice cultivation and metallurgy through its contact with Korea.
Vietnamese society was greatly impacted by Chinese influence, the northern part of Vietnam was occupied by Chinese empires and states for almost all of the period from 111 BC to 938 AD. In addition to administration, and making Chinese the language of administration, the long period of Chinese domination introduced Chinese techniques of dike construction, rice cultivation, and animal husbandry.
Chinese culture, having been established among the elite mandarin class, remained the dominant current among that elite for most of the next 1,000 years (939-1870s) until the temporary loss of independence under French Indochina. This cultural affiliation to China remained true even when militarily defending Vietnam against attempted invasion, such as against the Mongol Kublai Khan. The only significant exceptions to this were the 7 years of the strongly anti-Chinese Hồ dynasty which banned the use of Chinese (among other actions triggering the fourth Chinese invasion), but then after the expulsion of the Ming the rise in vernacular chữ nôm literature.
The Imperial Chinese tributary system shaped much of East Asia's history for over two millennia due to Imperial China's economic and cultural influence over the region, and thus played a huge role in the history of East Asia in particular.
In 1905 Japan also vanquished its imperial rival Russia in the Russo-Japanese War. It was the first major military victory in the modern era of an East Asian power over a European one and shocked the West.
Japan's ultimate imperial dream was the Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere, which would incorporate Korea, Taiwan, much of eastern China and Manchuria, Hong Kong, Vietnam, and Southeast Asia under its hegemonic control, establishing itself as a maritime colonial power in East Asia.
CJKV share a common written language, culture, as well as sharing Confucian philosophical tenets and the Confucian societal value system once instituted by Imperial China. Other usages cite geographic proximity as well as historical and modern cultural and economic ties, particularly with Japan and Korea having strong cultural influences that originated from China. Some scholars include Vietnam as part of East Asia as it has been considered part of the greater sphere of Chinese influence, though some classify Vietnam as a Southeast Asian country. Mongolia is geographically north of China yet Confucianism and the Chinese writing system and culture currently have less of an impact in Mongolia's historically nomadic society (however Mongolia was controlled by China during the Han, Tang, and Qing dynasties). Mongolia is sometimes grouped with Central Asian countries such as Turkmenistan, Kyrgyzstan, and Kazakhstan.
The UNSD division of East Asia is "to obtain greater homogeneity in population, demographic circumstances and accuracy of demographic statistics", but also other common definitions of East Asia contain Mainland China, Hong Kong, Macau, Mongolia, North Korea, South Korea, Taiwan, and Japan.
There are mixed debates around the world whether these countries or regions should be considered in East Asia or not.
In business and economics, "East Asia" is sometimes used to refer to a wide geographical area covering ten Southeast Asian countries in ASEAN, Greater China, Japan and Korea. However, in this context, the term "Far East" is used by the Europeans to cover ASEAN countries and the countries in East Asia. However, being a Eurocentric term, Far East describes the region's geographical position in relation to Europe rather than its location within Asia. Alternatively, the term "Asia Pacific Region" is often used in describing East Asia, South Asia and Southeast Asia as well as Oceania.
Observers preferring a broader definition of "East Asia" often use the term Northeast Asia to refer to the greater China area, the Korean Peninsula, and Japan, with Southeast Asia covering the ten ASEAN countries. This usage, which is seen in economic and diplomatic discussions, is at odds with the historical meanings of both "East Asia" and "Northeast Asia".
The culture of East Asia has largely been influenced by China, as it was the civilization that had the most dominant influence in the region throughout the ages that ultimately laid the foundation for East Asian civilization. The vast knowledge and ingenuity of Chinese civilization and the classics of Chinese literature and culture were seen as the foundations for a civilized life in East Asia. Imperial China served as a vehicle through which the adoption of Confucian ethical philosophy, Chinese calendar system, political and legal systems, architectural style, diet, terminology, institutions, religious beliefs, imperial examinations that emphasized a knowledge of Chinese classics, political philosophy and cultural value systems, as well as historically sharing a common writing system reflected in the histories of Japan and Korea. The Imperial Chinese tributary system was the bedrock of network of trade and foreign relations between China and its East Asian tributaries, which helped to shape much of East Asian affairs during the ancient and medieval eras. Through the tributary system, the various dynasties of Imperial China facilitated frequent economic and cultural exchange that influenced the cultures of Japan and Korea and drew them into a Chinese international order. The Imperial Chinese tributary system shaped much of East Asia's foreign policy and trade for over two millennia due to Imperial China's economic and cultural dominance over the region, and thus played a huge role in the history of East Asia in particular. The relationship between China and its cultural influence on East Asia has been compared to the historical influence of Greco-Roman civilization on Europe and the Western World.
Guangzhou is one of the most important cities in southern China. It has a history of over 2,200 years and was a major terminus of the maritime Silk Road and continues to serve as a major port and transportation hub today.
Xi'an or Chang'an is the oldest of the Four Great Ancient Capitals of China, having held the position under several of the most important dynasties. It has a significant cultural influence in East Asia.
Pass of the ISS over Mongolia, looking out west towards the Pacific Ocean, China, and Japan. As the video progresses, you can see major cities along the coast and the Japanese islands on the Philippine Sea. The island of Guam can be seen further down the pass into the Philippine Sea, and the pass ends just to the east of New Zealand. A lightning storm can be seen as light pulses near the end of the video.
^A state is a compulsory political organization with a centralized government that maintains a monopoly of the legitimate use of force within a certain geographical territory. The population on the Taiwan Island and the Penghu Islands is governed by an effective government to the exclusion of others, but the political status is dispute.
^ abc"East Asia". Encarta. Microsoft. Archived from the original on 2009-10-31. Retrieved 2008-01-12. the countries and regions of Mainland China, Hong Kong, Macau, Taiwan, Mongolia, South Korea, North Korea and Japan.
^ abColumbia University – "East Asian cultural sphere"Archived 2008-02-27 at the Wayback Machine "The East Asian cultural sphere evolves when Japan, Korea, and what is today Vietnam all share adapted elements of Chinese civilization of this period (that of the Tang dynasty), in particular Buddhism, Confucian social and political values, and literary Chinese and its writing system."
^Association of Academies of Sciences in Asia (2012). Towards a Sustainable Asia: The Cultural Perspectives. Springer. p. 17. ISBN978-3642166686.
^Minahan, James B. (2014). Ethnic Groups of North, East, and Central Asia: An Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. pp. xx–xxvi. ISBN978-1610690171.
^Zaharna, R.S.; Arsenault, Amelia; Fisher, Ali (2013). Relational, Networked and Collaborative Approaches to Public Diplomacy: The Connective Mindshift (1st ed.). Routledge (published 2013-05-01). p. 93. ISBN978-0415636070.
^Holcombe, Charles (2017). A History of East Asia: From the Origins of Civilization to the Twenty-First Century. Cambridge University Press. p. 13. ISBN978-1107544895.
^Szonyi, Michael (2017). A Companion to Chinese History. Wiley-Blackwell. p. 90. ISBN978-1118624609.
^Chongho Kim, "Korean Shamanism", 2003 Ashgate Publishing
^Andreas Anangguru Yewangoe, "Theologia crucis in Asia", 1987 Rodopi
^ abEllington, Lucien (2009). Japan (Nations in Focus). p. 21.
^Walker, Hugh Dyson (2012). East Asia: A New History. AuthorHouse. p. 119.
^ abAmy Chua; Jed Rubenfeld (2014). The Triple Package: How Three Unlikely Traits Explain the Rise and Fall of Cultural Groups in America. Penguin Press HC. p. 121. ISBN978-1594205460.
^ abcKang, David C. (2012). East Asia Before the West: Five Centuries of Trade and Tribute. Columbia University Press. pp. 33–34. ISBN978-0231153195.
^Goucher, Candice; Walton, Linda (2012). World History: Journeys from Past to Present. Routledge (published September 11, 2012). p. 232. ISBN978-0415670029.
^Brown, John (2006). China, Japan, Korea: Culture and Customs. Createspace Independent. p. 33. ISBN978-1419648939.
^Kim, Johnny S. (2013). Solution-Focused Brief Therapy: A Multicultural Approach. Sage Publications. p. 55. ISBN978-1452256672.
^Ikeo, Aiko (1996). Economic Development in Twentieth-Century East Asia: The International Context. Routledge. p. 1. ISBN978-0415149006.
^ abYoshimatsu, H. (2014). Comparing Institution-Building in East Asia: Power Politics, Governance, and Critical Junctures. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 1. ISBN978-1137370549.
^Kim, Mikyoung (2015). Routledge Handbook of Memory and Reconciliation in East Asia. Routledge. ISBN978-0415835138.
^ abcHazen, Dan; Spohrer, James H. (2005). Building Area Studies Collections. Otto Harrassowitz (published 2005-12-31). p. 1. ISBN978-3447055123.
^Grabowski, Richard; Self, Sharmistha; Shields, William (2012). Economic Development: A Regional, Institutional, and Historical Approach (2nd ed.). Routledge (published September 25, 2012). p. 59. ISBN978-0765633538.
^Economic Research Institute for Northeast Asia (1999). Japan and Russia in Northeast Asia: Partners in the 21st Century. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 248.
^"Standard country or area codes for statistical use (M49) - Geographic Regions". United Nations Statistics Division. Retrieved 4 September 2019. The list of geographic regions presents the composition of geographical regions used by the Statistics Division in its publications and databases. Each country or area is shown in one region only. These geographic regions are based on continental regions; which are further subdivided into sub-regions and intermediary regions drawn as to obtain greater homogeneity in sizes of population, demographic circumstances and accuracy of demographic statistics.