والده سلطان

از ویکی‌پدیا، دانشنامهٔ آزاد
پرش به: ناوبری، جستجو
فارسی English

والده سلطان لقبی بود که در امپراتوری عثمانی به مادر سلطان داده می‌شد. احتمالاً والده سلطان پس از خود سلطان، دارای بالاترین جایگاه در امپراتوری عثمانی بوده و نفود فراوانی در امور کشوری داشته‌است. به طور خاص، در سدهٔ هفدهم، در دوره‌ای که به دورهٔ سلطنت زنان مشهور شد، با روی کار آمدن گروهی از سلطان‌های بی‌کفایت یا نابالغ، نقش و دخالت والده سلطان در امور سلطنتی افزایش چشمگیری یافت.

منابع[ویرایش]

  • مشارکت‌کنندگان ویکی‌پدیا، «Valide Sultan»، ویکی‌پدیای انگلیسی، دانشنامهٔ آزاد (بازیابی در ۲۵ مه ۲۰۱۴).
Valide Sultan of
the Ottoman Empire
Former political post
BustOfAyseHafsaSultan ManisaTurkey.jpg
A bust of Ayşe Hafsa Sultan, who was the Valide Sultan from 1520 to 1534.
First officeholder Ayşe Hafsa Sultan
Last officeholder Rahime Perestu Sultan
Style Valide Sultan Efendi
Official residence Topkapı Palace
Dolmabahçe Palace
Yıldız Palace
Office began 1522
Office ended 1904
Current pretender Position abolished

Valide sultan (Ottoman Turkish: والده سلطان, literally "mother sultan") was the title held by the queen mother of a ruling Sultan of the Ottoman Empire.[1] The title was first used in the 16th century for Ayşe Hafsa Sultan, consort of Selim I and mother of Suleiman the Magnificent, superseding the previous title of mehd-i ülya ("cradle of the great").[1] The Turkish pronunciation of the word Valide is [vaː.liˈde].

The position was perhaps the most important position in the Ottoman Empire after the sultan himself. As the mother to the sultan, by Islamic tradition ("A mother's right is God's right"),[2] the valide sultan would have a significant influence on the affairs of the empire. She had great power in the court and her own rooms (always adjacent to her sons) and state staff.[1] In particular during the 17th century, in a period known as the "Sultanate of Women", a series of incompetent or child sultans raised the role of the valide sultan to new heights.[3]

The Sultanate of Women began with Hürrem Sultan (1500–1558; better known as Roxelana) and was continued by Nurbanu Sultan (1525–1583), mother of Murad III. As valide sultan in 1574–1583, Nurbanu was the de facto co-ruler, and managed the government together with the Grand Vizier Sokollu Mehmed Pasha. The most powerful and well-known of all valide sultans and haseki sultans in the history of the Ottoman Empire were Hürrem Sultan, Nurbanu Sultan and Kösem Sultan (1589–1651).

Harem women who were slaves were never formally married to the sultans. Nevertheless, their children were considered fully legitimate under Islamic law if recognized by the father.[4]

Reconstructed scene of a Valide Sultan and her attendants in her apartments at Topkapı Palace.
Kösem Sultan (1589–1651) who was murdered in 1651 through the plotting of Turhan Hatice Sultan.

The list of the Valide Sultans of the Ottoman Empire presented below does not include the complete list of the mothers of the Ottoman Sultans. Valide Sultan was the title of the mother of the reigning sultan. The mothers who died before her sons' accession to throne, never assumed the title of Valide Sultan (like Devlet Khātûn, Gül-Bahār Khātûn, Hürrem (Khurram) Haseki, Hatice (Khadija) Muazzez, Emine (Aminā) Mihr-î-Şâh, Râbi'a Sharmi, Tîr-î-Müjgan, Gülcemal, and Gülistan Münire). On the other hand there were step mothers who were not the biological mother but still assumed the title of Valide Sultans (like Nakş-î-Dil (Naksh-î-Dil) Haseki, and Rahîme Piristû (Perestû)).

List of Valide Sultans

The list of the Valide Sultans of the Ottoman Empire:

See also

External links

References

  1. ^ a b c Davis, Fanny (1986). "The Valide". The Ottoman Lady: A Social History from 1718 to 1918. ISBN 0-313-24811-7. 
  2. ^ http://www.beliefnet.com/Love-Family/Holidays/Mothers-Day/Can-Muslims-Celebrate-Mothers-Day.aspx?p=2#
  3. ^ Peirce, Leslie P., The Imperial Harem: Women and Sovereignty in the Ottoman Empire, Oxford University Press, 1993, ISBN 0-19-508677-5 (paperback)
  4. ^ Montgomery-Massingberd, Hugh, ed. (1980). "The Imperial Family of Turkey". Burke's Royal Families of the World. Volume II: Africa & the Middle East. London: Burke's Peerage. p. 238. ISBN 978-0-85011-029-6. 
  5. ^ The Fall of Constantinople, Steven Runciman, Cambridge University Press, p.36
  6. ^ The Nature of the Early Ottoman State, Heath W. Lowry, 2003 SUNY Press, p.153
  7. ^ History of the Ottoman Empire and Modern Turkey, Stanford Jay Shaw, Cambridge University Press, p.24
  8. ^ http://books.google.al/books?id=LtzXAAAAMAAJ&q=gulbahar+mother+of+bayezid+ii&dq=gulbahar+mother+of+bayezid+ii&hl=sq&sa=X&ei=MwvrU8jYE4XqyQPPnYGgBg&ved=0CCkQ6AEwBg
  9. ^ http://books.google.al/books?id=L6-VRgVzRcUC&pg=PA52&dq=gulbahar+mother+of+bayezid+ii&hl=sq&sa=X&ei=MwvrU8jYE4XqyQPPnYGgBg&ved=0CBAQ6AEwAQ
  10. ^ http://books.google.al/books?id=JXh6vjXt_4IC&pg=PA32&dq=bayezid+ii+mother&hl=sq&sa=X&ei=KnXrU7_CFuX4yQPYlYGwBA&ved=0CBwQuwUwAw
  11. ^ http://books.google.al/books?id=L6-VRgVzRcUC&pg=PA365&dq=bayezid+ii+mother&hl=sq&sa=X&ei=KnXrU7_CFuX4yQPYlYGwBA&ved=0CBAQ6AEwAQ
  12. ^ http://books.google.al/books?id=w4RpAAAAMAAJ&q=Gulbahar+Hatun+bayezid+ii+mother&dq=Gulbahar+Hatun+bayezid+ii+mother&hl=sq&sa=X&ei=enbrU-PJNqT4yQOqoIGADg&ved=0CCEQ6AEwBA
  13. ^ http://books.google.al/books?id=77aDnC12IDEC&pg=PA30&dq=Gülbahar+Albanian&hl=en&sa=X&ei=SWjkU9zFHeHqyQPLoYL4Cw&ved=0CBoQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=Gülbahar Albanian&f=false
  14. ^ http://books.google.al/books?id=nDoOAQAAMAAJ&q=Gülbahar+Albanian&dq=Gülbahar+Albanian&hl=en&sa=X&ei=jMPlU7_7LabB7Aa3_IHYDQ&ved=0CEsQ6wEwCA
  15. ^ Yavuz Bahadıroğlu, Resimli Osmanlı Tarihi, Nesil Yayınları (Ottoman History with Illustrations, Nesil Publications), 15th Ed., 2009, page 395, ISBN 978-975-269-299-2
  16. ^ Christine Isom-Verhaaren, Royal French Women in the Ottoman Sultans' Harem: The Political Uses of Fabricated Accounts from the Sixteenth to the Twenty-first Century, Journal of World History, vol. 17, No. 2, 2006
  17. ^ Ali Kemal Meram, "Padişah anaları", 1977 p. 399 (Turkish)
  18. ^ Palmer, Alan, The Decline and Fall of the Ottoman Empire, p.106. Barnes & Noble Publishing, 1992. ISBN 1-56619-847-X
  19. ^ Brookes, Douglass Scott, The Concubine, the Princess, and the Teacher, p.290. University of Texas Press, 2008. ISBN 0-292-71842-X
  20. ^ Brookes, Douglass Scott, The Concubine, the Princess, and the Teacher, p.287. University of Texas Press, 2008. ISBN 0-292-71842-X