میوه

از ویکی‌پدیا، دانشنامهٔ آزاد
پرش به: ناوبری، جستجو
فارسی English
میوه‌ها در بازار لا بوکوئریا در بارسلون
گلچینی از میوه‌های مختلف

در گیاه‌شناسی به نهنج وتخمدان رسیده یک گیاه گلدار، میوه می‌گویند. میوه‌ها خود معمولاً تخم گونه خود را نیز در دل دارند.

هنگامی که در آشپزی بحث از میوه به‌عنوان غذا می‌شود، این واژه معمولاً فقط به میوه گیاهانی گفته می‌شود که شیرین و گوشتدار هستند مانند آلو، سیب، پرتقال و... درحالیکه گروه بسیار زیادی از سبزیجات معمولی، مغزها و غلات، میوه گیاهان خود محسوب می‌شوند. میوه‌هایی که معمولاً در آشپزی جزو میوه‌ها به حساب نمی‌آیند عبارت‌اند از کدوها(مثل کدو و کدو حلوایی)، ذرت، سیب زمینی و فلفل سبز. اینها از نظر یک گیاه شناس میوه هستند اما عموماً در آشپزی جزو سبزیجات در نظر گرفته می‌شوند. گاهی نیز میوه‌های مربوط به آشپزی، از نظر گیاه‌شناسی جزو میوه‌ها بشمار نمی‌آیند؛ مانند ریواس که در آن فقط برگ شیرین دمبرگ قابل خوردن است. همچنین بعضی از ادویه‌ها مانند فلفل شیرین و جوز هندی، میوه هستند.

گاهی اوقات اصطلاح «میوه کاذب» در مورد یک میوه مثل انجیر یا یک ساختار گیاهی که شبیه میوه‌است، اما از یک گل یا تعدادی گل حاصل نمی‌شود بکار می‌رود. بعضی از بازدانگان از قبیل گیاه سرخدار دارای آریل‌های گوشتدار شبیه میوه هستند و تعدادی از ارسها، مخروطهای گوشتداری شبیه گیلاس دارند.

در بیشتر میوه‌ها، گرده‌افشانی بخش مهمی از پرورش میوه‌است و عدم دانش کافی در مورد گرده سازها و گرده افشانها می‌تواند به تولید محصولات ضعیف یا نامرغوب منجر شود. در تعداد کمی از گونه‌ها فرایندی به نام بکرمیوه‌دهی (parthenocarpy) وجود دارد که درآن احتمال تولید میوه در غیاب گرده سازها / گرده افشانها وجود دارد؛ اینگونه میوه‌ها بدون دانه هستند.

در دوره‌های بسیار قدیمِ کره زمین گیاهان میوه‌دار وجود نداشتند. در جریان تکامل گیاهان، برخی از گیاهان برای افزودن به شانس بقای نسل خود به مرور به دور دانه‌های خود موادی خوشمزه و جذاب برای جانوران ترشح کردند تا از این طریق جانوران را تشویق به خوردن دانه‌ها و دفع آن‌ها در نقاط دیگر بکنند. این امر به گسترش جغرافیایی گیاه و بقای آن کمک زیادی می‌کند. مواد جذابی که به‌دور دانه‌های مختلف گیاهان ترشح شدند به مرور تشکیل انواع میوه‌های امروزی را دادند.[۱]

میوه فروشی در تهران

رشد و نمو میوه[ویرایش]

میوه فروشی در آنتالیا ترکیه
بازار میوهٔ تسوکوجی در توکیو
انگور زنجان

بعد از باروری تخمک دراثر فرایندی به نام «گرده افشانی»، تخمدان شروع به رشد می‌کند. گلبرگها می‌افتند و تخمک درون دانه رشد می‌کند. سرانجام تخمدان (دربیشتر موارد به همراه سایر قسمت‌های گل) ساختاری را حول دانه یا دانه‌ها بوجود می‌آورد که میوه نامیده می‌شود. رشد میوه تا زمان بلوغ دانه‌ها ادامه می‌یابد. در برخی از میوه‌های چند دانه‌ای، مقدار رشد گوشت میوه متناسب با تعداد تخمکهای بارور شده‌است.

دیواره میوه که از دیواره تخمدان گل بوجود آمده پیرابر نامیده می‌شود. پیرابر اغلب بصورت دو یا سه لایه مجزا به نامهای برون بر(لایه خارجی)، میان بر (لایه میانی) و درون بر (لایه داخلی) جدایش یافته‌است. در بعضی از میوه‌ها بویژه میوه‌های یکپارچه که از یک تخمدان همبند حاصل شده‌اند، سایر قسمت‌های گل (از قبیل آوند گل که شامل گلبرگها، کاسبرگها و پرچم‌ها است) با تخمدان در آمیخته شده و با آن رشد می‌کنند. اگر بخش‌های دیگر گل که به آنها اشاره شد قسمت مهمی در میوه باشند به آن میوه ثانوی می‌گویند. چون ممکن است سایر قسمت‌های گل در ساختار میوه موثر باشند لذا برای فهم چگونگی شکل گیری یک میوه خاص، بررسی ساختار گل آن بسیار مهم است.

سیب‌ها از نظر رشد و نمو و شکل بسیار متنوع هستند وهمین مسئله ایجاد یک نظام طبقه بندی که دربرگیرنده تمامی میوه‌های شناخته باشد را مشکل می‌سازد. بعلاوه به نظر می‌رسد که بسیاری از اصطلاحات در رابطه با دانه‌ها و میوه به درستی بکار نرفته‌است و این واقعیتی است که درک واژگان را مشکل ساخته نموده. دانه‌ها، تخمکهای رسیده هستند؛ میوه‌ها، تخمدانها یا برچه‌های محتوی دانه هستند.این توضیح را می‌توان به این دو تعریف افزود که در واژه‌شناسی مربوط به علم گیاه‌شناسی یک مغز نوعی میوه‌است و واژه دیگری برای دانه نیست.

سه گروه کلی برای میوه‌ها وجود دارد:

  1. میوه‌های یکپارچه
  2. میوه‌های فراهم
  3. میوه‌های چند بخشی

میوه‌های یکپارچه[ویرایش]

میوه‌های یکپارچه می‌توانند خشک یا گوشتداربوده و حاصل رشد یک تخمدان ساده یا مرکب ولی با یک مادگی باشند. میوه‌های خشک ممکن است شکوفا(دارای دهانه برای بیرون فرستادن دانه‌ها) ویا ناشکوفا (فاقد دهانه برای خارج کرده دانه‌ها) باشند. انواع میوه‌های خشک و یکپارچه عبارت‌اند از (با مثال):

تخم برهه- (آلاله) پوشینه - جوز برزیل گندمه – گندم) شفت لیفدار- نارگیل فولیکول – (شیر گیاه) بنشن – (نخود، لوبیا، بادام زمینی) بنشن تک دانه‌ای میوه مغزدار- گردو و فندق، راش، بلوط رخنده بر- هویج نیام خورجینی گوشک

میوه‌هایی که در آنها بخشی یا تمام پیرابر (دیواره میوه) هنگام بلوغ گوشتداراست را میوه‌های گوشتدار یکپارچه می‌نامند. انواع میوه‌های یکپارچه گوشتدار عبارت‌اند از (با مثال):

توت - گوجه فرنگی، آوکادو شفت - آلو، گیلاس، هلو، زیتون توت کاذب - میوه‌های ثانوی موز، زغال‌اخته سیب گونه – میوه‌های ثانوی سیب، گلابی موز

میوه‌های فراهم[ویرایش]

میوه فراهم از یک گل با تعداد زیادی مادگی بوجود می‌آید. نمونه آن تمشک است که میوه‌های یکپارچه اش را شفتک می‌نامند چون هر کدام از آنها شبیه یک شفت کوچکی است که به نهنج متصل می‌باشد. در برخی از میوه‌های خاردار (از قبیل سیاه سته) نهنج باریک و دراز بوده و بخشی از میوه رسیده‌است و سیاه سته را به میوه‌ای ثانوی – فراهمی تبدیل می‌کند. توت فرنگی هم میوه‌ای ثانوی – فراهمی محسوب می‌شود که تنها درآن، دانه‌ها درون تخمهای برهنه‌ای (یک تخمه) قرار دارند. در تمامی این نمونه‌ها، میوه از یک گل مجزا با تعداد زیادی مادگی بوجود می‌آیند.

در بعضی از گیاهان مانند noni، گلها بصورت منظم سرتاسر ساقه تولید می‌شوند و امکان اینکه باهم نمونه‌هایی از گل آوری، رویش میوه و رسیدن آن را ببینیم وجود دارد.

میوه‌های چندبخشی[ویرایش]

میوه چند بخشی به میوه‌ای گفته می‌شود که از یک خوشه گل بوجود آمده باشد (به نام گل آذین). هر گل یک میوه تولید می‌کند اما آنها بصورت یک مجموعه بالغ می‌شوند. مانندآناناس، انجیر خوراکی، توت، پرتقال اوسیج ودرخت نان.

مراحل گل آوری و رشد میوه در noni یا توت هندی (Morinda citrifolia) را می‌توانید بر روی شاخه‌ای مجزا مشاهده کنید. ابتدا شکوفایی گلهای سفید به نام سنبله بوجود می‌آید. بعد از باروری، هر گل به یک شفت تبدیل می‌گردد و هنگامیکه شفتها رشد کردند بصورت یک میوه گوشتدار چند بخشی به نام میوه‌پیوسته در هم ادغام می‌شوند.

انتشار دانه[ویرایش]

میوه‌ها سازه‌های گیاهی هستند که ظاهراً تغییراتشان به میزان زیادی با انتشار دانه‌هایشان (پراکندگی نامیده می‌شود) در ارتباط است.

بعضی میوه‌ها دارای لایه‌های بیرونی هستند که با خوشه‌ها یا خارگوی‌هایی پوشیده شده که مانع از خورده شدنشان توسط حیوانات شده ویا برای چسبیده به موی حیوانات و استفاده از آنها به‌عنوان عامل انتشار کاربرد دارند.

سایر میوه‌ها دراز و پهن می‌شوند بنابراین شبیه بال هواپیما یا ملخ بالگرد باریک می‌گردند. این همچنین یک سازوکار تکاملی برای افزایش دامنه انتشار به حساب می‌آید.

جستارهای وابسته[ویرایش]

منابع[ویرایش]

دانشنامه رشد. اصول باغبانی انتشارات آستان قدس رضوی

  1. Fruit, Seeds and Evolutionary Biology، بازدید: فوریه ۲۰۱۲.

پیوند به بیرون[ویرایش]

جستجو در ویکی‌انبار در ویکی‌انبار پرونده‌هایی دربارهٔ میوه موجود است.

For other uses, see Fruit (disambiguation).
Mixed fruit
Culinary fruits
Fruit basket painted by Balthasar van der Ast
The Medici citrus collection by Bartolomeo Bimbi, 1715

In botany, a fruit is a part of a flowering plant that derives from specific tissues of the flower, one or more ovaries, and in some cases accessory tissues. Fruits are the means by which these plants disseminate seeds. Many of them that bear edible fruits, in particular, have propagated with the movements of humans and animals in a symbiotic relationship as a means for seed dispersal and nutrition, respectively; in fact, humans and many animals have become dependent on fruits as a source of food.[1] Fruits account for a substantial fraction of the world's agricultural output, and some (such as the apple and the pomegranate) have acquired extensive cultural and symbolic meanings.

In common language usage, "fruit" normally means the fleshy seed-associated structures of a plant that are sweet or sour and edible in the raw state, such as apples, oranges, grapes, strawberries, bananas, and lemons. On the other hand, the botanical sense of "fruit" includes many structures that are not commonly called "fruits", such as bean pods, corn kernels, wheat grains, and tomatoes.[2][3]

The section of a fungus that produces spores is also called a fruiting body.[4]

Botanic fruit and culinary fruit

Venn diagram representing the relationship between (culinary) vegetables and botanical fruits

In the culinary sense of these words, a fruit is usually any sweet-tasting plant product, especially those associated with seeds; a vegetable is any savory or less sweet plant product; and a nut is any hard, oily, and shelled plant product.[5]

These culinary vegetables that are botanically fruit include cucurbits (e.g., squash, pumpkin, and cucumber), tomatoes, peas, beans, corn, eggplant, and sweet pepper. In addition, some spices, such as allspice and chilies, are fruits, botanically speaking.[6] In contrast, rhubarb is often referred to as a fruit, because it is used to make sweet desserts such as pies, though only the petiole (leaf stalk) of the rhubarb plant is edible.[7] Edible gymnosperm seeds are often given fruit names, e.g., pine nuts, ginkgo nuts.

Botanically, a cereal grain, such as corn, wheat or rice, is also a kind of fruit, termed a caryopsis. However, the fruit wall is very thin, and is fused to the seed coat, so almost all of the edible grain is actually a seed.[8]

Many common terms for seeds and fruit do not correspond to the botanical classifications. In botany, seeds are ripened ovules; fruits are the ripened ovaries or carpels that contain the seeds and a nut is a type of fruit and not a seed.[6]

Fruit structure

Main article: Fruit anatomy

The outer, often edible layer, is the pericarp, formed from the ovary and surrounding the seeds, although in some species other tissues contribute to or form the edible portion. The pericarp may be described in three layers from outer to inner, the epicarp, mesocarp and endocarp.

Fruit that bears a prominent pointed terminal projection is said to be beaked.[9]

Fruit development

The development sequence of a typical drupe, the nectarine (Prunus persica) over a 7.5 month period, from bud formation in early winter to fruit ripening in midsummer (see image page for further information)

A fruit results from maturation of one or more flowers, and the gynoecium of the flower(s) forms all or part of the fruit.[10]

Inside the ovary/ovaries are one or more ovules where the megagametophyte contains the egg cell.[11] After double fertilization, these ovules will become seeds. The ovules are fertilized in a process that starts with pollination, which involves the movement of pollen from the stamens to the stigma of flowers. After pollination, a tube grows from the pollen through the stigma into the ovary to the ovule and two sperm are transferred from the pollen to the megagametophyte. Within the megagametophyte one of the two sperm unites with the egg, forming a zygote, and the second sperm enters the central cell forming the endosperm mother cell, which completes the double fertilization process.[12][13] Later the zygote will give rise to the embryo of the seed, and the endosperm mother cell will give rise to endosperm, a nutritive tissue used by the embryo.

As the ovules develop into seeds, the ovary begins to ripen and the ovary wall, the pericarp, may become fleshy (as in berries or drupes), or form a hard outer covering (as in nuts). In some multiseeded fruits, the extent to which the flesh develops is proportional to the number of fertilized ovules.[14] The pericarp is often differentiated into two or three distinct layers called the exocarp (outer layer, also called epicarp), mesocarp (middle layer), and endocarp (inner layer). In some fruits, especially simple fruits derived from an inferior ovary, other parts of the flower (such as the floral tube, including the petals, sepals, and stamens), fuse with the ovary and ripen with it. In other cases, the sepals, petals and/or stamens and style of the flower fall off. When such other floral parts are a significant part of the fruit, it is called an accessory fruit. Since other parts of the flower may contribute to the structure of the fruit, it is important to study flower structure to understand how a particular fruit forms.[3]

There are three general modes of fruit development:

  • Apocarpous fruits develop from a single flower having one or more separate carpels, and they are the simplest fruits.
  • Syncarpous fruits develop from a single gynoecium having two or more carpels fused together.
  • Multiple fruits form from many different flowers.

Plant scientists have grouped fruits into three main groups, simple fruits, aggregate fruits, and composite or multiple fruits.[15] The groupings are not evolutionarily relevant, since many diverse plant taxa may be in the same group, but reflect how the flower organs are arranged and how the fruits develop.

Simple fruit

Epigynous berries are simple fleshy fruit. Clockwise from top right: cranberries, lingonberries, blueberries red huckleberries

Simple fruits can be either dry or fleshy, and result from the ripening of a simple or compound ovary in a flower with only one pistil. Dry fruits may be either dehiscent (opening to discharge seeds), or indehiscent (not opening to discharge seeds).[16] Types of dry, simple fruits, with examples of each, are:

Lilium unripe capsule fruit

Fruits in which part or all of the pericarp (fruit wall) is fleshy at maturity are simple fleshy fruits. Types of fleshy, simple fruits (with examples) are:

Dewberry flowers. Note the multiple pistils, each of which will produce a drupelet. Each flower will become a blackberry-like aggregate fruit.

An aggregate fruit, or etaerio, develops from a single flower with numerous simple pistils.[17]

The pome fruits of the family Rosaceae, (including apples, pears, rosehips, and saskatoon berry) are a syncarpous fleshy fruit, a simple fruit, developing from a half-inferior ovary.[18]

Schizocarp fruits form from a syncarpous ovary and do not really dehisce, but split into segments with one or more seeds; they include a number of different forms from a wide range of families.[15] Carrot seed is an example.

Aggregate fruit

Main article: Aggregate fruit
Detail of raspberry flower.

Aggregate fruits form from single flowers that have multiple carpels which are not joined together, i.e. each pistil contains one carpel. Each pistil forms a fruitlet, and collectively the fruitlets are called an etaerio. Four types of aggregate fruits include etaerios of achenes, follicles, drupelets, and berries. Ranunculaceae species, including Clematis and Ranunculus have an etaerio of achenes, Calotropis has an etaerio of follicles, and Rubus species like raspberry, have an etaerio of drupelets. Annona have Etaerio of berries.[19][dead link][20]

The raspberry, whose pistils are termed drupelets because each is like a small drupe attached to the receptacle. In some bramble fruits (such as blackberry) the receptacle is elongated and part of the ripe fruit, making the blackberry an aggregate-accessory fruit.[21] The strawberry is also an aggregate-accessory fruit, only one in which the seeds are contained in achenes.[22] In all these examples, the fruit develops from a single flower with numerous pistils.

Multiple fruits

Main article: Multiple fruit

A multiple fruit is one formed from a cluster of flowers (called an inflorescence). Each flower produces a fruit, but these mature into a single mass.[23] Examples are the pineapple, fig, mulberry, osage-orange, and breadfruit.

In some plants, such as this noni, flowers are produced regularly along the stem and it is possible to see together examples of flowering, fruit development, and fruit ripening.

In the photograph on the right, stages of flowering and fruit development in the noni or Indian mulberry (Morinda citrifolia) can be observed on a single branch. First an inflorescence of white flowers called a head is produced. After fertilization, each flower develops into a drupe, and as the drupes expand, they become connate (merge) into a multiple fleshy fruit called a syncarpet.

Berries

Main article: Berry

Berries are another type of fleshy fruit; they are simple fruit created from a single ovary. The ovary may be compound, with several carpels. Type include (examples follow in the table below):

Accessory fruit

Main article: Accessory fruit

Some or all of the edible part of accessory fruit is not generated by the ovary.

Table of fruit examples

Types of fleshy fruits
True berry Pepo Hesperidium Aggregate fruit Multiple fruit Accessory fruit
Blackcurrant, Redcurrant, Gooseberry, Tomato, Eggplant, Guava, Lucuma, Chili pepper, Pomegranate, Kiwifruit, Grape, Cranberry, Blueberry Pumpkin, Gourd, Cucumber, Melon Orange, Lemon, Lime, Grapefruit Blackberry, Raspberry, Boysenberry Pineapple, Fig, Mulberry, Hedge apple Apple, Rose hip, Strawberry, Stone fruit

Seedless fruits

An arrangement of fruits commonly thought of as vegetables, including tomatoes and various squash

Seedlessness is an important feature of some fruits of commerce. Commercial cultivars of bananas and pineapples are examples of seedless fruits. Some cultivars of citrus fruits (especially navel oranges), satsumas, mandarin oranges, table grapes, grapefruit, and watermelons are valued for their seedlessness. In some species, seedlessness is the result of parthenocarpy, where fruits set without fertilization. Parthenocarpic fruit set may or may not require pollination but most seedless citrus fruits require stimulus from pollination to produce fruit.

Seedless bananas and grapes are triploids, and seedlessness results from the abortion of the embryonic plant that is produced by fertilization, a phenomenon known as stenospermocarpy which requires normal pollination and fertilization.[24]

Seed dissemination

Variations in fruit structures largely depend on the mode of dispersal of the seeds they contain. This dispersal can be achieved by animals, wind, water, or explosive dehiscence.[25]

Grapes and Mangoes

Some fruits have coats covered with spikes or hooked burrs, either to prevent themselves from being eaten by animals or to stick to the hairs, feathers or legs of animals, using them as dispersal agents. Examples include cocklebur and unicorn plant.[26][27]

The sweet flesh of many fruits is "deliberately" appealing to animals, so that the seeds held within are eaten and "unwittingly" carried away and deposited at a distance from the parent. Likewise, the nutritious, oily kernels of nuts are appealing to rodents (such as squirrels) who hoard them in the soil in order to avoid starving during the winter, thus giving those seeds that remain uneaten the chance to germinate and grow into a new plant away from their parent.[6]

Other fruits are elongated and flattened out naturally and so become thin, like wings or helicopter blades, e.g. maple, tuliptree and elm. This is an evolutionary mechanism to increase dispersal distance away from the parent via wind. Other wind-dispersed fruit have tiny parachutes, e.g. dandelion and salsify.[25]

Coconut fruits can float thousands of miles in the ocean to spread seeds. Some other fruits that can disperse via water are nipa palm and screw pine.[25]

Some fruits fling seeds substantial distances (up to 100 m in sandbox tree) via explosive dehiscence or other mechanisms, e.g. impatiens and squirting cucumber.[28]

Uses

Nectarines are one of many fruits that can be easily stewed.
Oranges, bananas, pears, apples, and a watermelon
Fruit bowl containing pomegranate, pears, apples, bananas, an orange and a guava

Many hundreds of fruits, including fleshy fruits like apple, peach, pear, kiwifruit, watermelon and mango are commercially valuable as human food, eaten both fresh and as jams, marmalade and other preserves. Fruits are also used in manufactured foods like cookies, muffins, yogurt, ice cream, cakes, and many more. Many fruits are used to make beverages, such as fruit juices (orange juice, apple juice, grape juice, etc.) or alcoholic beverages, such as wine or brandy.[29] Apples are often used to make vinegar. Fruits are also used for gift giving, Fruit Basket and Fruit Bouquet are some common forms of fruit gifts.

Many vegetables are botanical fruits, including tomato, bell pepper, eggplant, okra, squash, pumpkin, green bean, cucumber and zucchini.[30] Olive fruit is pressed for olive oil. Spices like vanilla, paprika, allspice and black pepper are derived from berries.[31]

Nutritional value

Each point refers to a 100 g serving of the fresh fruit, the daily recommended allowance of vitamin C is on the X axis and mg of Potassium (K) on the Y (offset by 100 mg which every fruit has) and the size of the disk represents amount of fiber (key in upper right). Oranges and bananas have the highest amount of fiber and are also furthest away from the bottom left indicating their superior nutrition. Watermelon which has almost no fiber and low levels of vitamin C and potassium comes in last place.

Fruits are generally high in fiber, water, vitamin C and sugars, although this latter varies widely from traces as in lime, to 61% of the fresh weight of the date.[32] Fruits also contain various phytochemicals that do not yet have an RDA/RDI listing under most nutritional factsheets, and which research indicates are required for proper long-term cellular health and disease prevention. Regular consumption of fruit is associated with reduced risks of cancer, cardiovascular disease (especially coronary heart disease), stroke, Alzheimer disease, cataracts, and some of the functional declines associated with aging.[33]

Diets that include a sufficient amount of potassium from fruits and vegetables also help reduce the chance of developing kidney stones and may help reduce the effects of bone-loss. Fruits are also low in calories which would help lower one's calorie intake as part of a weight-loss diet.[34]

Nonfood uses

Because fruits have been such a major part of the human diet, different cultures have developed many different uses for various fruits that they do not depend on as being edible. Many dry fruits are used as decorations or in dried flower arrangements, such as unicorn plant, lotus, wheat, annual honesty and milkweed. Ornamental trees and shrubs are often cultivated for their colorful fruits, including holly, pyracantha, viburnum, skimmia, beautyberry and cotoneaster.[35]

Fruits of opium poppy are the source of opium which contains the drugs morphine and codeine, as well as the biologically inactive chemical theabaine from which the drug oxycodone is synthesized.[36] Osage orange fruits are used to repel cockroaches.[37] Bayberry fruits provide a wax often used to make candles.[38] Many fruits provide natural dyes, e.g. walnut, sumac, cherry and mulberry.[39] Dried gourds are used as decorations, water jugs, bird houses, musical instruments, cups and dishes. Pumpkins are carved into Jack-o'-lanterns for Halloween. The spiny fruit of burdock or cocklebur were the inspiration for the invention of Velcro.[40]

Coir is a fiber from the fruit of coconut that is used for doormats, brushes, mattresses, floortiles, sacking, insulation and as a growing medium for container plants. The shell of the coconut fruit is used to make souvenir heads, cups, bowls, musical instruments and bird houses.[41]

Fruit is often used as a subject of still life paintings.

Safety

For food safety, the CDC recommends proper fruit handling and preparation to reduce the risk of food contamination and foodborne illness. Fresh fruits and vegetables should be carefully selected. At the store, they should not be damaged or bruised and pre-cut pieces should be refrigerated or surrounded by ice. All fruits and vegetables should be rinsed before eating. This recommendation also applies to produce with rinds or skins that are not eaten. It should be done just before preparing or eating to avoid premature spoilage. Fruits and vegetables should be kept separate from raw foods like meat, poultry, and seafood, as well as utensils that have come in contact with raw foods. Fruits and vegetables, if they are not going to be cooked, should be thrown away if they have touched raw meat, poultry, seafood or eggs. All cut, peeled, or cooked fruits and vegetables should be refrigerated within two hours. After a certain time, harmful bacteria may grow on them and increase the risk of foodborne illness.[42]

Allergy

Fruit allergies make up about ten percent of all food related allergies[43][44] Essential oils similar to those in citrus fruit peels are part of Balsam of Peru's composition.[45]

Production

Most fruit is produced using traditional farming practices. However, the yield of fruit from organic farming is growing.[citation needed]

Storage

The plant hormone ethylene causes ripening of many types of fruit. Maintaining most fruits in an efficient cold chain is optimal for post harvest storage, with the aim of extending and ensuring shelf life. All fruits benefit from proper post harvest care.[46]

See also

References

  1. ^ Lewis, Robert A. (January 1, 2002). CRC Dictionary of Agricultural Sciences. CRC Press. ISBN 0-8493-2327-4. 
  2. ^ Schlegel, Rolf H J (January 1, 2003). Encyclopedic Dictionary of Plant Breeding and Related Subjects. Haworth Press. p. 177. ISBN 1-56022-950-0. 
  3. ^ a b Mauseth, James D. (April 1, 2003). Botany: An Introduction to Plant Biology. Jones and Bartlett. pp. 271–272. ISBN 0-7637-2134-4. 
  4. ^ "Sporophore from Encyclopædia Britannica". 
  5. ^ For a Supreme Court of the United States ruling on the matter, see Nix v. Hedden.
  6. ^ a b c McGee, Harold (November 16, 2004). On Food and Cooking: The Science and Lore of the Kitchen. Simon and Schuster. pp. 247–248. ISBN 0-684-80001-2. 
  7. ^ McGee (2004-11-16). On Food and Cooking. p. 367. ISBN 978-0-684-80001-1. 
  8. ^ Lewis (2002). CRC Dictionary of Agricultural Sciences. p. 238. ISBN 978-0-8493-2327-0. 
  9. ^ "Glossary of Botanical Terms". FloraBase. Western Australian Herbarium. Retrieved 23 July 2014. 
  10. ^ Esau, K. 1977. Anatomy of seed plants. John Wiley and Sons, New York.
  11. ^ [1][dead link]
  12. ^ Mauseth, James D. (2003). Botany: an introduction to plant biology. Boston: Jones and Bartlett Publishers. p. 258. ISBN 978-0-7637-2134-3. 
  13. ^ Rost, Thomas L.; Weier, T. Elliot; Weier, Thomas Elliot (1979). Botany: a brief introduction to plant biology. New York: Wiley. pp. 135–37. ISBN 0-471-02114-8. 
  14. ^ Mauseth (2003-04-25). Botany. Chapter 9: Flowers and Reproduction. ISBN 978-0-7637-2134-3. 
  15. ^ a b Singh, Gurcharan (2004). Plants Systematics: An Integrated Approach. Science Publishers. p. 83. ISBN 1-57808-351-6. 
  16. ^ Schlegel (2003-05-13). Encyclopedic Dictionary. p. 123. ISBN 978-1-56022-950-6. 
  17. ^ Schlegel (2003-05-13). Encyclopedic Dictionary. p. 16. ISBN 978-1-56022-950-6. 
  18. ^ Gupta, Prof. P.K. Introduction to Biology. Rastogi Publication. p. 2134. ISBN 978-81-7133-896-2. 
  19. ^ http://www.rkv.rgukt.in/content/Biology/47Module/47fruit.pdf[dead link]
  20. ^ McGee (2004-11-16). On Food and Cooking. pp. 361–362. ISBN 978-0-684-80001-1. 
  21. ^ McGee (2004-11-16). On Food and Cooking. pp. 364–365. ISBN 978-0-684-80001-1. 
  22. ^ Schlegel (2003-05-13). Encyclopedic Dictionary. p. 282. ISBN 978-1-56022-950-6. 
  23. ^ Spiegel-Roy, P.; E. E. Goldschmidt (August 28, 1996). The Biology of Citrus. Cambridge University Press. pp. 87–88. ISBN 0-521-33321-0. 
  24. ^ a b c Capon, Brian (February 25, 2005). Botany for Gardeners. Timber Press. pp. 198–199. ISBN 0-88192-655-8. 
  25. ^ Heiser, Charles B. (April 1, 2003). Weeds in My Garden: Observations on Some Misunderstood Plants. Timber Press. pp. 93–95. ISBN 0-88192-562-4. 
  26. ^ Heiser (2003-04-01). Weeds in My Garden. pp. 162–164. ISBN 978-0-88192-562-3. 
  27. ^ Feldkamp, Susan (2002). Modern Biology. Holt, Rinehart, and Winston. p. 634. ISBN 0-88192-562-4. 
  28. ^ McGee (2004-11-16). On Food and Cooking. Chapter 7: A Survey of Common Fruits. ISBN 978-0-684-80001-1. 
  29. ^ McGee (2004-11-16). On Food and Cooking. Chapter 6: A Survey of Common Vegetables. ISBN 978-0-684-80001-1. 
  30. ^ Farrell, Kenneth T. (November 1, 1999). Spices, Condiments and Seasonings. Springer. pp. 17–19. ISBN 0-8342-1337-0. 
  31. ^ Hulme, A.C (editor) (1970). The Biochemistry of Fruits and their Products 1. London & New York: Academic Press. 
  32. ^ Rui Hai Liu (2003-09-01). "Health benefits of fruit and vegetables are from additive and synergistic combinations of phytochemicals – Liu 78 (3): 517S – American Journal of Clinical Nutrition". Ajcn.org. Retrieved 2014-04-25. 
  33. ^ "Why is it Important to eat Fruit?". 
  34. ^ Adams, Denise Wiles (February 1, 2004). Restoring American Gardens: An Encyclopedia of Heirloom Ornamental Plants, 1640–1940. Timber Press. ISBN 0-88192-619-1. 
  35. ^ Booth, Martin (June 12, 1999). Opium: A History. St. Martin's Press. ISBN 0-312-20667-4. 
  36. ^ Cothran, James R. (November 1, 2003). Gardens and Historic Plants of the Antebellum South. University of South Carolina Press. p. 221. ISBN 1-57003-501-6. 
  37. ^ K, Amber (December 1, 2001). Candlemas: Feast of Flames. Llewellyn Worldwide. p. 155. ISBN 0-7387-0079-7. 
  38. ^ Adrosko, Rita J. (June 1, 1971). Natural Dyes and Home Dyeing: A Practical Guide with over 150 Recipes. Courier Dover Publications. ISBN 0-486-22688-3. 
  39. ^ Wake, Warren (March 13, 2000). Design Paradigms: A Sourcebook for Creative Visualization. John Wiley and Sons. pp. 162–163. ISBN 978-0-471-29976-9. 
  40. ^ "The Many Uses of the Coconut". The Coconut Museum. Retrieved 2006-09-14. 
  41. ^ Food Safety Basics for Fruits and Vegetables at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
  42. ^ "Asthma and Allergy Foundation of America". Aafa.org. Retrieved 2014-04-25. 
  43. ^ Roy Mankovitz (2010). The Wellness Project. Retrieved 2014-04-25. 
  44. ^ Marlene Jones (2010-10-30). The Complete Guide to Creating Oils, Soaps, Creams, and Herbal Gels for Your .... Retrieved 2014-04-25. 
  45. ^ Why Cold Chain for Fruits: Kohli, Pawanexh (2008). "Fruits and Vegetables Post-Harvest Care: The Basics". Crosstree Techno-visors. 

Further reading

Books
  • Gollner, Adam J. (2010). The Fruit Hunters: A Story of Nature, Adventure, Commerce, and Obsession. Scribner. ISBN 978-0-7432-9695-3
  • Watson, R.R. / Preedy, V.R. (2010, eds.). Bioactive Foods in Promoting Health: Fruits and Vegetables. Academic Press. ISBN 978-0-12-374628-3

External links