ابوابراهیم، موسی بن جعفر الکاظم، هفتمین امام شیعیان دوازده امامی که آنها از او با عنوان امام موسی کاظم یا «امام کاظم» یاد میکنند. وی فرزند ابوعبدالله جعفر الصادقالبارالامین است که در روز ۷ صفر سال ۱۲۸ ه. ق. در ابواء (منطقهای در میان مکه و مدینه) به دنیا آمد. مادر او حمیده مصفّاة است که نامهای دیگری مانند حمیده بربریه و حمیده اندلسیه نیز برای او نقل شدهاست. از مهمترین القاب پیروانش برای او، میتوان به کاظم، صابر، صالح، امین و عبدالصالح اشاره کرد. او در میان شیعیان در میان امامانشان به «بابالحوائج» معروف است.
جانشینی جعفر صادق
وی پس از کشته شدن پدرش جعفر صادق به دست خلیفه وقت در شوال سال ۱۴۸ ه. ق. و در زمان خلافت منصور عباسی امامت خود بر شیعیان را اعلام کرد که این کار ۳۵ سال به درازا کشید. سید محمدحسین طباطبایی در این باره می نویسد: «منصور پس از آن که خبر شهادت امام ششم را دریافت داشت به والى مدینه نوشت که بعنوان تفقد بازماندگان، به خانه امام برود و وصیت نامه آن حضرت را خواسته و بخواند و کسى را که وصى امام معرفى شده فى المجلس گردن بزند و البته مقصود منصور از جریان این دستور این بود که به مسئله امامت خاتمه دهد و زمزمه تشیع رابکلى خاموش کند ولى بر خلاف توطئه وى وقتى که والى مدینه طبق دستور، وصیت نامه را خواند دید امام پنج نفر را براى وصایت تعیین فرموده. خود خلیفه و والى مدینه و عبدالله افطح فرزند بزرگ و موسى فرزند کوچک آنحضرت و حمیده و به این ترتیب تدبیر منصور نقش بر آب شد» وی نقش موثری در گسترش معارف شیعی داشت. در این دوران، چندین بار توسط خلفای عباسی دستگیر و زندانی گردید. تنها در دوران خلافت هارون الرشید، به مدت چهار سال زندانی بود. موسی کاظم، در ۲۵ رجب ۱۸۳ ه. ق.، در سن ۵۵ سالگی، توسط زهر در زندان سندیبن شاهک به دستور هارون الرشید کشته شد. وی در شهر کاظمین در کشور عراق مدفون است.
درباره تعداد فرزندانش چند قول وجود دارد. بنا بر یکی از آنها، وی ۳۷ فرزند داشت که شامل ۱۸ پسر و ۱۹ دختر بودند. علی بن موسی، هشتمین امام شیعیان، فرزند اوست. همچنین یکی از دخترانش به نام فاطمه معصومه که برای دیدار برادرش، رضا، عازم ایران شده بود، در شهر قم بیمار شد و پس از چند روز بیماری، درگذشت و در این شهر مدفون است.
اصحاب و یاران
رویدادهای مهم در دوران زندگی
سالشمار امامت امامان دوازدهگانه شیعه
علی بن ابیطالب ۶۳۲ تا ۶۶۱ (۲۹ سال) (۱) حسن مجتبی ۶۶۱ تا ۶۷۰ (۹ سال) (۲) حسین بن علی ۶۷۰ تا ۶۸۰ (۱۰ سال) (۳) سجاد ۶۸۰ تا ۷۱۲ (۳۲ سال) (۴) محمد باقر ۷۱۲ تا ۷۳۲ (۲۰ سال) (۵) جعفر صادق ۷۳۲ تا ۷۶۵ (۳۳ سال) (۶) (۷) موسی کاظم ۷۶۵ تا ۷۹۹ (۳۴ سال)علی بن موسی الرضا ۷۹۹ تا ۸۱۷ (۱۸ سال) (۸) محمد التقی ۸۱۷ تا ۸۳۵ (۱۸ سال) (۹) علی النقی ۸۳۵ تا ۸۶۸ (۳۳ سال) (۱۰) حسن عسکری ۸۶۷ تا ۸۷۴ (۷ سال) (۱۱) حجت بن حسن (مهدی) از ۸۷۴ تا زمان حال (تاکنون ۱۱۴۰ سال) (۱۲)
پیوند به بیرون
For the Twelver Shī‘ah scholar, see Musa al-Sadr. For the African-American Muslim activist, see Abdul Alim Musa.
Mûsâ ibn Ja‘far al-Kâdhim (Arabic: موسى بن جعفر الكاظم), also called Abul Hasan, Abu Abd Allah, and Abu Ibrahim is known for his nickname al-Kadhim (the forbearing), and is the seventh Shiite Imam after his father Ja'far al-Sadiq. He is regarded by Sunnis as a renowned scholar and was contemporary with the Abbasid caliphs, Al-Mansur, Al-Hadi, Al-Mahdi and Harun al-Rashid. He lived in very difficult times, in hiding, until he finally died in Baghdad in the Sindi ibn Shahak prison through poisoning. Ali al-Ridha, the eighth Imām, and Fatemah Masume were among his children.
Birth and early life
Musa Ibn Ja’afar was born during the struggle between the Umayyads and the Abbasids. His mother, Hamidah, was originally a Berbery slave though some writers say she was from Andalusia. He was only four years old when As-Saffah, “The Shedder of Blood”, came to the throne as the first Abbasid caliph. With six brothers and nine sisters Musa grew up in a large family. Ismail, his oldest brother died at a young age and Musa was chosen by Divine providence to succeed his father as the Imam. Musa was fully versed with the Divine Knowledge even in his childhood. Muhammad Baqir Majlisi relates that once Abū Ḥanīfa happened to call upon the house of Imam Ja'far al-Sadiq to ask him about some religious matters. The Imam was asleep and so he kept waiting outside. Meanwhile, Musa who was then five years old came out of his house. When Abu Hanifa came to know that the boy was al-sadiq's son, asked him about the question he had prepared for Imam al-Sadiq, saying: " Boy, from whom does disobedience (issue)? Does it issue from Allah or from the servant?"
Musa answered him, saying: "Either it issues from God and not from the servant at all, so God does not punish the servant for what he does not do; or it issues from the servant and God, and God is a stronger partner. Therefore, the stronger partner has no right to punish the weak for a sin in which they are equal; or it issues form the servant and not from God. So If He wills to pardon (him), (He will pardon him), and If He wills to punish (him), (He will punish him); and God is He whose help is sought."[a]
The history of the Shiite Imams generally demonstrates their constant struggle against oppression, which sometimes includes practicing taqiyya, a form of religious dissimulation. As for Imam Kadhim, when his father, the sixth imam, was poisoned through the intrigue of Mansur, Mansur wrote to the governor of Medina instructing him to go to the house of the Imam on the pretext of expressing his condolences to the family, to ask for the Imam’s will and testament and read it. Whoever was chosen by the Imam as his inheritor and successor should be beheaded on the spot. Of course the aim of Mansur was to put an end to the whole question of imamah and to Shiite aspirations. When the governor of Medina, following orders, read the last will and testament, he saw that the Imam had chosen four people rather than one to administer his last will and testament: the caliph himself, the governor of Medina, Abdullah al-Aftah, the Imam’s older son, and Musa, his younger son. In this way the plot of Mansur failed. Nevertheless, Unlike his father who lived in a favorable climate in which he was able to teach openly in Madina, Musa al-kaadhim lived most of his life in Medina with severe restriction placed upon him by such Abbasid caliphs as al-Mansur and Harun al-Rashid.
After the death of Imam Ja’far, the sixth Imam, the majority of Shiite followed his son Imam Musa al-Kazim as the seventh Imam. However, one group followed the older son of the sixth Imam, Isma'il, who had died while his father was still alive, and when this latter group separated from the majority of Shiite it became known as Ismailis. Others accepted as Imam either Abdullah al-Aftah or Muhammad, both sons of the sixth Imam. Finally, another party stopped with the sixth Imam himself and considered him as the last Imam. After the death of Imam Musa al-Kazim, however, the majority followed his son, Ali al-Ridha, as the eighth Imam. Though, some stopped with the seventh Imam and became known as the Waqifiyah. From the eighth Imam to the twelfth, whom the majority of the Shiite believe to be the promised Mahdi, no division of any importance took place within Shiism.[b]
I (i.e. Hisham b. Salim) and Muhammed b. Nu'man (known as) Sahib al-Taq were in Medina after the death of Imam al-Sadiq. The people had agreed that Abd Allah b. Ja'far was the leader of the affair and the one who would undertake the office of the Imamah after his father. My companions and I came in to him. When we sat down, we asked him the following questions:
- Five dirhams.
- How much on a hundred dirhams?
- Two and a half dirhams.
They were astonished at this religious decision that has no relationship with the Islamic Law. That is because the minimum amount of dirhams is two hundred dirhams; and there is nothing on that which is less than it. Hisham sneered at this religious verdict that has no concept:
- By Allah, you are declaring the doctrine of the Murji'ah.
- By Allah, I do not know the doctrine of the Murji'ah.
Hisham and Muhammed left him while they could not see the way out of pain and sadness, for they did not come to know the Imam who would undertake the office of the Imamate after Abu Abd Allah (al-Sadiq). Then Hisham said: "(Shall I go) to the Murji'ites, the Qadarities, the Mu'tazilites, to the Zaydites, to the Kharijites?" While Hisham and Muhammed were roaming in a current of suspicions and thoughts and were reflecting on a doctrine to follow, they saw an old man indicating with his hand to Hisham to follow him. Hisham thought that the old man was among the spies of al-Mansur and could understand their speech. He fearfully turned to his companion and ordered him to go away from him, that only he might be punished. He followed the old man, and he took him to Imam Musa ibn Ja'far. When he came in to him, he became tranquil. When he sat down, the Imam turned to him and said to him with kindness and affection: "To me, not to the Murji'ites, nor to the Qadarities, nor to the Mu'tazilites, nor to the Zaydites...." Hisham became happy, for he found his objective when the Imam told him about what he had in his inner self. This is one of the marks and signs of the Imamah. Then Hisham asked him the following question:
- May I be your ransom, has your father gone?
- Has he left through death?
- Whom shall we follow after him?
- If God wills, He will guide you to that man.
- May I be your ransom, your brother Abd Allah claims that he is the Imam after his father.
- Abd Allah intends that Allah should not be worshipped (properly).
- Who is in charge of us after him.
He answered him with an answer similar to his first one, and Hisham asked him:
- Are you him?
- I am not saying that.
Hisham made a mistake in his speech, and he corrected his mistake, saying:
- Do you have an Imam over you?
- May I be your ransom, may I question you like I used to question your father.
- Question. You will be informed but do not spread (the answer) around. For if you do spread it around, then slaughter will take place.
Then he asked him many questions, to the extent that he came to know that the Imam was a sea (of knowledge) which could not be exhausted out of his abundant knowledge and merit. After he had come to know him and been sure of his Imamah, he asked him: - May I be your ransom, the Shiite of your father is lost (without a leader). May I put this matter to them and summon them (to follow) you? For you have taken (a promise of secrecy from me).
- Tell those of them whose righteousness you are familiar with, but take (a promise of) secrecy from them. For if it gets spread around, there will be slaughter. And he pointed to his neck with his hand.
With Harun al-Rashid
It is said that on an occasion al-Rashid took umbrage at an apt retort from the Imam when they were together before the tomb of the Prophet in Medina. With the desire to show his own family relationship to the Prophet, Harun had said, "Salutation unto thee, O Prophet of God, unto thee who art my cousin!" But as he faced the tomb, the Imam said, "Salutation unto thee, o my dear father!" At this Harun was disconcerted and remarked, "Abul-Hasan, such glory as thine is truly to be vaunted of." Later on Harun found the opportunity to question the Imam:
-Why have you permitted the non-Shiite (al-amma) and the Shiite (al-khassa) to ascribe you to the Prophet and to call you: O Sons of Allah's Apostle, and you are the sons of Ali, and one is ascribed to his father, and Fatimah was a container, and the Prophet is your grandfather on the side of your mother?
- If the Prophet was raised from the dead and proposed to your daughter, would you respond to him?
- Glory belongs to Allah! And why do I not respond to him? Rather I would through that pride myself on the Arabs, the non-Arabs, and Quraysh. - But he would not propose (to my daughter) and I would not marry (her) to him.
- Because he begot me and did not beget you.
- Well-done, Musa! Why have you said that you are the Prophet's progeny, while the Prophet had no progeny, the progeny belongs to the male and not to the female, and you are his daughter's children?
- I ask you, by the right of the kinship, to exempt me (from that). Job - No, you should tell me about your proof …I do not exempt you.
- Will you give me permission to answer?
- Give (me the answer).
- Allah has said in his book: and of his descendants, David and Solomon, Job, Joseph, Moses and Aaron; and thus do We reward those who do good. And Zachariah and John the Baptist, and Jesus and Elias: All in the company of the righteous[c] Who is Jesus's father, O Commander of the faithful?
- Jesus had no father.
- Allah has ascribed him to the descendants of the prophets through Mary; similarly, we have been ascribed to the descendants of the Prophet through our mother Fatimah. Nevertheless, Harun asked Imam Musa to give him more evidence and proofs. So he responded to him, saying: “Allah, the Great and Almighty, has said to prophet: But whoever disputes with you in this matter after what has come to you of knowledge, then say: Come, let us call our sons and your sons and our women and your women and ourselves and yourselves, then let us be earnest in prayer, and pray for the curse of Allah on the liars.[d] None claims that the Prophet made someone enter under the cloak (kisa) when he challenged the Christians to a contest of prayer to God (mubahala) except Ali, Fatimah, al-Hasan, and al-Husayn. Therefore the explanation of the words of Him, the Exalted, is: Our sons are al-Hasan and al-Husayn; our women is Fatimah; ourselves is Ali.[e]
With Bishr al-hafi
"He is free," she replied.
"You are right," retorted Musa al-Kadhim, "if he was servant, he would fear his Lord."
The slave girl came into the house while Bishir was at the wine table, so he asked her: "What delayed you?" She gave him an account of what took place between her and the Imam. It is said that Bishr quickly jumped to his feet and headed to the door barefooted but the pious man had already left. He left in pursuit of the man and when he finally caught up with him asked him to repeat his words and he obliged. Bishr was so taken aback by his words that he fell to the ground and began to cry. "No I am a slave, I am a slave." From then onwards he would walk without shoes and people began calling him Bishr al-Haafi (The bare footed one). When asked why he did not wear shoes, he would reply "My master Allah guided me when I was barefooted and I will remain in this condition till death".
With a Monk
Al-Abbas b. Hilal al-Shami has nararted: “I said to Musa al-Kadhim: Men admire him who eats the most simple food, wears coarse clothes, and shows reverence. So he, said: Did you not know that Yousif (Joseph) was a prophet, son of a prophet? (However) he used to wear silk mantles brocaded with gold. He sat on the thrones of the Pharaohs and ruled. The people were in no need of his clothes, but they were in need of his justice. An Imam is required to be just and fair; when he says something, he says the truth; when he promises something, he fulfills his promise; when he passes a judgement, he judges equitably. Allah has not forbidden wearing a particular type of clothes or eating a particular type of food earned through a lawful way; rather He has forbidden the unlawful, little or much. And most certainly Allah has said: Say: Who has forbidden the beautiful (gifts) of Allah which He has produced for His servants, and the agreeable things of the sustenance.[f]
With abu hanifa
Abū Ḥanīfa visited Imam al-Sadiq, and said to him: “I have seen your son, Musa, pray while the people were passing before him. He did not prevent them from that.” Abu Abd Allah (al-Sadiq) ordered his son to be brought before him. “O My little son, Abu Hanifa says that you pray and the people pass before you.” Asked imam sadiq. “Yes, father,” replied Musa, “the One to Whom I pray is nearer to me than them; Allah, the Great and Almighty, says: We are nearer to him than the jugular vein.[g] when he heard these words of his son, he rose for him, embraced him, and said: “May my father and mother be your ransom, O he in whom secrets have been deposited!”
Imam Musa was called Kadhim (the forbearing) due to his immoderate pardoning those who aggressed against him. He was mild and patient in his temperament. In the notice given him by Ibn Khallikan of his generosity and benevolence we read "that when a man had spoken ill of him he sent him a purse of money. One of the most famous of these stories goes as follows: It is narrated that a man wronged Imam Musa and cursed his grandfather Imam Ali. One of the Imam's followers intended to kill him, but the Imam prevented him deciding to solve the problem in another way. The Imam asked some people about the man's place and they led him to the outskirts of Medina. He mounted his mule and went away. He found him on his farm and went towards him. The man shouted at him saying: "Do not walk on my plants!" The Imam paid no attention and when reached him, sat beside him and treated him with kindness asking:
- How much have you paid to sow your land?
- One hundred dinars.
- How much do you hope to acquire from it?
- I do not know the unknown.
- I only asked you about what you hope it would bring you.
- I hope that it will bring me two hundred dinars.
The Imam gave him three hundred dinars and said: "This three hundred dinars is for you and your plants are as they are. Then he headed for the Mosque of the Prophet. He found the man was sitting there. When he saw the Imam walking towards him, stood up for him and called out: "Allah knows best where to put his (prophetic) mission." His companions jumped (in surprise) towards him criticizing him for this change in his attitude. He disputed with them and recited to them the achievements and noble deeds of the Imam and invoked Allah for him. So the Imam turned to his companions and said: "Which was better-what you wanted or what I wanted? I have put right his attitude to the extent you have now become acquainted with." Musa al-Kadhim was also called Abdu' al-Salih, (the Holy Servant) In illustration of his religious rather than political interest, which was characteristic of all the Imams. He used to tie up in packets sums of two hundred, three hundred, or four hundred dinars and distribute them in the city of Medina." His purses were proverbial, so his family said: "We wonder at him to whom Musa's purses come while he complains of paucity and poverty."
Imprisonments and Death
It may have been this generosity which brought him under suspicion when the, Caliph al-Mahdi had him arrested and brought to Baghdad. But as Ibn Khallikan relates:"This Caliph had a dream in which Ali ibn Abu Talib appeared to him and said, " O Muhammad, were ye ready therefore, if ye had been put in authority, to commit evil in the earth, and to violate the ties of blood?"[h] Al-Fadl ibn al-Rabi' relates in these terms what followed: "He sent for me at night and that put me in great dread. I went to him and found him chanting the above verse and no man had a finer voice than he. He said to me, "Bring me Musa ibn Ja'far." I did so and he embraced him, seated him by his side and said to him, "Abul-Hasan, I have just seen in a dream the Commander of the Faithful, Ali ibn Abu Talib, and he has recited to me such and such a verse; give me the assurance that you will not revolt against me or against any of my children." He answered, " By Allah, I am incapable of revolting." "You say the truth!' Replied the Caliph, "give him three thousand pieces of gold and restore him to his family in Medina." I arranged the affair of his departure that very night, lest some obstacle might turn up, and before morning the man was on his journey.[i]
In the caliphate of Harun al-Rashid the Imam was also repeatedly subject to suspicion and disfavor. It is said that once al-Rashid took umbrage at an apt retort from the Imam when they were together before the tomb of the Prophet in Medina. With the desire to show his own family relationship to the Prophet, Harun had said, "Salutation unto thee, O Prophet of God, unto thee who art my cousin!" But as he faced the tomb, the Imam said, "Salutation unto thee, o my dear father!" At this Harun was disconcerted and remarked, "Abul-Hasan, such glory as thine is truly to be vaunted of."[j]
This occurrence would be sufficient to explain his first summons from Harun al-Rashid to come to Baghdad. There the Imam was kept in prison, and al-Khuzai, the chief of the palace guards, has related a vision the Caliph had which led him to release the Imam: "A messenger came to me from al-Rashid," he said, "at an hour in which I never before received his visits; he pulled me from the place where I was and would not even allow me to change my clothes. This put me in great fear. When I arrived at the palace, I found the caliph sitting up in his bed. I saluted him, but he kept silent for some time; so my mind was much troubled and my fears greatly augmented. At length he said, 'Do you know why I sent for you at such an hour?' I answered, ' By Allah, I do not, Commander of the Faithful.' 'Know,' said he, 'that I just had a dream in which it seemed to me as if an Abyssinian came to me with a javelin in his hand and said to me: "Let Musa ibn ja'far be set at liberty this very hour, otherwise I shall slay thee with this javelin." Do you, therefore go and get him set free.' I replied, ' Commander of the Faithful, shall I then liberate Musa the son of Ja'far?' 'Yes,' said he, 'go and set Musa ibn Ja'far at liberty. Give him thirty thousand dirhems and say to him in my name, If you would like to remain with us you will obtain from me whatever you desire, but if you prefer going to Medina you have permission to do so.' I went to the prison and found the Imam waiting for me saying how quickly you had come. Whilst I was asleep," he said, "behold the Apostle of God came to me and said, "O Musa, thou hast been imprisoned unjustly; so recite the words I am going to repeat to thee, for assuredly thou shalt not pass all this night in prison.[k][l]
As to what may have led to his final imprisonment, it is said that it is stated by al-Fakhri that "there were some of the relatives of Musa ibn Ja'far who were envious of him and carried false reports about him to al-Rashid, saying, 'The people are paying him the Khums, or one-fifth of their property, on accepting the Imamah, and he is about to come forth against you.' They brought this report to al-Rashid so frequently that it made him anxious and agitated. In that year al-Rashid went on the pilgrimage, and when he arrived in Medina, he arrested Musa ibn Ja'far, and brought him to Baghdad in a litter, and imprisoned him under the care of al-Sindi ibn Sha'hik."[m]
Al-Fakhri adds ; Al-Rashid was at Rakka when he sent orders that the Imam should be put to death. They then brought a number of reputable men to Karkh to act as coroners and to testify publicly that he had died a natural death. He, then, was buried in the cemetery of Quraish on the south side of Baghdad. The place he was buried was a cemetery, but soon this place became the focus of pilgrimage on the grave of the Imam. A town grew around the grave yard. The name of the town became Kadhimiya, (the town of the Imam Kadhim) A reputed school of theology was founded in this town which is still a source of learning for many students from all over the world.
Quotations related to Mūsā al-Kādhim at Wikiquote