فهرست میراث جهانی یونسکو در انگلستان

از ویکی‌پدیا، دانشنامهٔ آزاد
پرش به: ناوبری، جستجو
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فهرست میراث جهانی یونسکو در انگلستان شامل ۲۸ میراث (۴ میراث طبیعی و ۲۳ میراث فرهنگی و ۱ ترکیبی) می‌باشد.[۱] میراث جهانی یونسکو نام عهدنامه‌ای بین‌المللی است که در تاریخ ۱۶ نوامبر ۱۹۷۲ میلادی به تصویب کنفرانس عمومی یونسکو رسید. موضوع آن حفظ آثار تاریخی، طبیعی و فرهنگی بشر است که اهمیت جهانی دارند و متعلق به تمام انسان‌های زمین، فارغ از نژاد، مذهب و ملیت خاص، می‌باشند.[۲]

قلعه دورهام یکی از نخستین میراث انگلستان است که به ثبت رسید.[۳] بریتانیا سالانه £ ۱۳۰٫۰۰۰ برای حفاظت از سایت‌های کشورهای در حال توسعه به صندوق جهانی میراث جهانی کمک می‌کند.[۴]

فهرست میراث[ویرایش]

نام نگاره مکان دوره تاریخ ثبت توضیحات
Blaenavon Industrial Landscape Big Pit Mining Museum.jpg Blaenavon, Wales
۵۱°۴۷′ شمالی ۳°۰۵′ غربی / ۵۱.۷۸° شمالی ۳.۰۸° غربی / 51.78; -3.08 (Blaenavon Industrial Landscape)[۵]
۱۹th قرن[۵] 984; 2000;
iii, iv
[۵]
In the 19th قرن, Wales was the world's foremost producer of iron and coal. Blaenavon is an example of the landscape created by the industrial processes associated with the production of these materials. The site includes quarries, public buildings, workers' housing, and a railway.[۵]
کاخ بلنهایم Blenheim Palace 2006 cropped.jpg Woodstock, آکسفوردشر, England
۵۱°۵۰′۳۱″ شمالی ۱°۲۱′۴۱″ غربی / ۵۱.۸۴۱۹۴۴° شمالی ۱.۳۶۱۳۸۹° غربی / 51.841944; -1.361389 (Bleheim Palace)[۶]
۱۷۰۵–۱۷۲۲[۶] 425; 1987;
ii, iv
[۶]
Blenheim Palace, the residence of John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough, was designed by architects John Vanbrugh and Nicholas Hawksmoor. The associated park was landscaped by Capability Brown. The palace celebrated victory over the French and is significant for establishing English Romantic Architecture as a separate entity from French Classical Architecture.[۶]
کنتربری, کلیسای سنت آگوستین, and کلیسای سنت مارتین Canterbury Cathedral - Portal Nave Cross-spire.jpeg کنتربری, کنت (انگلستان), England
۵۱°۱۶′۴۸″ شمالی ۱°۰۴′۵۹″ شرقی / ۵۱.۲۸° شمالی ۱.۰۸۳۰۵۶° شرقی / 51.28; 1.083056 (Canterbury Cathedral, St Augustine's Abbey, and St Martin's Church)[۷]
11th قرن[۷] 496; 1988;
i, ii, vi
[۷]
St Martin's Church is the oldest church in England. The church and St Augustine's Abbey were founded during the early stages of the introduction of Christianity to the Anglo-Saxons. The cathedral exhibits معماری رومی‌وار and معماری گوتیک, and is the seat of the کلیسای انگلیس.[۷][۸][۹]
Castles and Town Walls of King Edward in Gwynedd Beaumaris, circular towers and moat, 2006.jpg Conwy, انگلسی and Gwynedd, Wales
۵۳°۰۸′۲۳″ شمالی ۴°۱۶′۳۷″ غربی / ۵۳.۱۳۹۷۲۲° شمالی ۴.۲۷۶۹۴۴° غربی / 53.139722; -4.276944 (Castles and Town Walls of King Edward in Gwynedd)[۱۰]
13th–14th قرن[۱۰] 374; 1986;
i, iii, iv
[۱۰]
During the reign of ادوارد اول انگلستان (1272–1307), a series of castles were constructed in Wales with the purpose of subduing the population and establishing English colonies in Wales. The World Heritage Site covers many castles including Beaumaris, Caernarfon, Conwy, and Harlech. The castles of Edward I are considered the pinnacle of military architecture by military historians.[۱۰][۱۱]
باث Royal.crescent.aerial.bath.arp.jpg باث, سامرست (شهرستان), England
۵۱°۲۲′۵۱″ شمالی ۲°۲۱′۳۷″ غربی / ۵۱.۳۸۰۹° شمالی ۲.۳۶۰۳° غربی / 51.3809; -2.3603 (City of Bath)[۱۲]
1st–19th قرن[۱۲] 428; 1987;
i, ii, iv
[۱۲]
Founded by the Romans as a spa, an important centre of the wool industry in the medieval period, and a spa town in the 18th قرن, Bath has a varied history. The city is preserved for its Roman remains and معماری پالادیان.[۱۲]
کورن‌وال Crowns peh.jpg کورن‌وال and دوون (شهرستان), England
۵۰°۰۸′۱۰″ شمالی ۵°۲۳′۰۱″ غربی / ۵۰.۱۳۶۱۱۱° شمالی ۵.۳۸۳۶۱۱° غربی / 50.136111; -5.383611 (Cornwall and West Devon Mining Landscape)[۱۳]
18th and 19th centuries[۱۳] 1,215; 2006;
ii, iii, iv
[۱۳]
Tin and copper mining in Devon and Cornwall boomed in the 18th and 19th centuries, and at its peak the area produced two-thirds of the world's copper. The techniques and technology involved in deep mining developed in Devon and Cornwall were used around the world.[۱۳]
Derwent Valley Mills Arkwright Masson Mills.jpg Derwent Valley, دربی‌شایر, England
۵۳°۰۱′۱۳″ شمالی ۱°۲۹′۵۹″ غربی / ۵۳.۰۲۰۲۷۸° شمالی ۱.۴۹۹۷۲۲° غربی / 53.020278; -1.499722 (Derwent Valley Mills)[۱۴]
18th and 19th centuries[۱۴] 1,030; 2001;
ii, iv
[۱۴]
The Derwent Valley Mills was the birthplace of the factory system; the innovations in the valley, including the development of workers' housing – such as at Cromford – and machines such as the water frame, were important in the انقلاب صنعتی. The Derwent Valley Mills influenced North America and Europe.[۱۵]
Dorset and East Devon Coast Gad cliff dorset.jpg دورست (انگلستان) and دوون (شهرستان), England
۵۰°۴۲′۲۰″ شمالی ۲°۵۹′۲۴″ غربی / ۵۰.۷۰۵۵۵۶° شمالی ۲.۹۸۹۸۸۹° غربی / 50.705556; -2.989889 (Dorset and East Devon Coast)[۱۶]
n/a 1029; 2001;
viii
[۱۶]
The cliffs that make up the Dorset and Devon coast are an important site for fossils and provide a continuous record of life on land and in the sea in the area since 185 million years ago.[۱۶]
Durham قلعه دورهام and Cathedral Durham Cathedral and Castle.jpg دورهام, کانتی دورهام, England
۵۴°۴۶′۳۰″ شمالی ۱°۳۴′۳۲″ غربی / ۵۴.۷۷۴۸۷° شمالی ۱.۵۷۵۵۸° غربی / 54.77487; -1.57558 (Durham Castle and Cathedral)[۱۷]
11th and 12th centuries[۱۷] 370; 1986;
ii, iv, vi
[۱۷]
Durham Cathedral is the "largest and finest" example of Norman architecture in England and vaulting of the cathedral was part of the advent of معماری گوتیک. The cathedral houses relics of St Cuthbert and سینت بید. The Norman castle was the residence of the Durham prince-bishops.[۱۷]
Frontiers of the Roman Empire Hadrianswall2007.jpg Northern England and southern Scotland
۵۴°۵۹′۳۳″ شمالی ۲°۳۶′۰۴″ غربی / ۵۴.۹۹۲۶۱۱° شمالی ۲.۶۰۱° غربی / 54.992611; -2.601 (Frontiers of the Roman Empire)[۱۸]
2nd قرن[۱۸] 430; 1987 (modified in 2005 and 2008);
ii, iii, iv
[۱۸]
دیوار هادریان was built in 122 AD and the Antonine Wall was constructed in 142 AD to defend the امپراتوری روم from "barbarians".[۱۸] The World Heritage Site was previously listed as Hadrian's Wall alone, but was later expanded to include all the frontiers of the Roman Empire at its zenith in the 2nd قرن, ranging from Antonine's Wall in the north to Trajan's Wall in eastern Europe.[۱۹]
Giant's Causeway and Causeway Coast Causeway-code poet-4.jpg County Antrim, Northern Ireland
۵۵°۱۴′۲۷″ شمالی ۶°۳۰′۴۲″ غربی / ۵۵.۲۴۰۸۳۳° شمالی ۶.۵۱۱۶۶۷° غربی / 55.240833; -6.511667 (Giant's Causeway and Causeway Coast)[۲۰]
60–50 million years ago[۲۰] 369; 1986;
vii, viii
[۲۰]
The causeway is made up of 40,000 بازالت columns projecting out of the sea. It was created by volcanic activity in the ترشیاری.[۲۰]
Gough and Inaccessible Island Gough island top view.png سینت هلینا, اقیانوس اطلس
۴۰°۱۹′۰۵″ جنوبی ۹°۵۶′۰۷″ غربی / ۴۰.۳۱۸۱° جنوبی ۹.۹۳۵۳° غربی / -40.3181; -9.9353 (Gough and Inaccessible Island)[۲۱]
n/a 740; 1995 (modified in 2004);
vii, x
[۲۱]
Together, the Gough and Inaccessible Islands preserve an ecosystem almost untouched by mankind, with many native species of plants and animals.[۲۱]
Heart of Neolithic Orkney Orkney Skara Brae.jpg اورکنی, Scotland
۵۸°۵۹′۴۶″ شمالی ۳°۱۱′۱۹″ غربی / ۵۸.۹۹۶۰۵۶° شمالی ۳.۱۸۸۶۶۷° غربی / 58.996056; -3.188667 (Heart of Historic Orkney)[۲۲]
3rd millennium BC[۲۲] 514; 1999;
i, ii, iii, iv
[۲۲]
A collection of Neolithic sites with purposes ranging from occupation to ceremony. It includes the settlement of Skara Brae, the chambered tomb of Maes Howe and the stone circles of Stenness and Brodgar.[۲۲]
Henderson Island HendersonISS004-E-6793.PNG Henderson Island, جزایر پیت‌کرن, اقیانوس آرام
۲۴°۲۱′۰۰″ جنوبی ۱۲۸°۱۹′۰۰″ غربی / ۲۴.۳۵° جنوبی ۱۲۸.۳۱۶۶۶۷° غربی / -24.35; -128.316667 (Henderson Island)[۲۳]
n/a 487; 1988;
vii, x
[۲۳]
The island is an آتول in the south of the Pacific Ocean, the ecology of which has been almost untouched by man and its isolation illustrates the dynamics of evolution. There are ten plant and four animal species native to the island.[۲۳]
Historic Town of St George and Related Fortifications, Bermuda John Smith 1624 map of Bermuda with Forts 01.jpg St George, برمودا
۵۱°۲۲′۵۱″ شمالی ۲°۲۱′۳۷″ غربی / ۵۱.۳۸۰۹° شمالی ۲.۳۶۰۳° غربی / 51.3809; -2.3603 (City of Bath)[۲۴]
17th–20th centuries[۲۴] 983; 2000;
iv
[۲۴]
Founded in 1612, St George is the oldest English town in the New World and an example of planned urban settlements established in the New World in the 17th قرن by colonial powers. The fortifications illustrate defensive techniques developed through the 17th to 20th centuries.[۲۴]
Ironbridge Gorge Ironbridge002.JPG Ironbridge, شروپ‌شایر, England
۵۲°۳۷′۳۵″ شمالی ۲°۲۹′۱۰″ غربی / ۵۲.۶۲۶۴۶° شمالی ۲.۴۸۶° غربی / 52.62646; -2.486 (Ironbridge Gorge)[۲۵]
18th قرن[۲۵] 371; 1986;
i, ii, iv, vi
[۲۵]
Ironbridge Gorge contains mines, factories, workers' housing, and the transport infrastructure that was created in the gorge during the انقلاب صنعتی. The development of coke production in the area helped start the Industrial Revolution. The Iron Bridge was the world's first bridge built from iron and was architecturally and technologically influential.[۲۵]
لیورپول Albert dock at night.jpg لیورپول, مرزیساید, England
۵۳°۲۴′ شمالی ۲°۵۹′ غربی / ۵۳.۴۰° شمالی ۲.۹۹° غربی / 53.40; -2.99 (Liverpool Maritime Mercantile City)[۲۶]
18th and 19th centuries[۲۶] 1,150; 2004;
ii, iii, iv
[۲۶]
In the 18th and 19th centuries, Liverpool was one of the largest ports in the world. Its global connections helped sustain the امپراتوری بریتانیا, and it was a major port involved in the slave trade until its abolition in 1807, and a departure point for emigrants to North America. The docks were the site of innovations in construction and dock management.[۲۶]
Maritime Greenwich Royal Naval College 2008.jpg گرینویچ (منطقه), لندن, لندن بزرگ, England
۵۱°۲۸′۴۵″ شمالی ۰°۰۰′۰۰″ شرقی / ۵۱.۴۷۹۱° شمالی ۰° شرقی / 51.4791; 0 (Maritime Greenwich)[۲۷]
17th and 18th centuries[۲۷] 795; 1997;
i, ii, iv, vi
[۲۷]
As well as the presence of the first example of معماری پالادیان in England, and works by کریستوفر رن and Inigo Jones, the area is significant for the رصدخانه سلطنتی گرینویچ where the understanding of astronomy and navigation were developed.[۲۷]
New Lanark New Lanark buildings 2009.jpg New Lanark, South Lanarkshire, Scotland
۵۵°۴۰′ شمالی ۳°۴۷′ غربی / ۵۵.۶۶° شمالی ۳.۷۸° غربی / 55.66; -3.78 (New Lanark)[۲۸]
19th قرن[۲۸] 429; 2001;
ii, iv, vi
[۲۸]
Prompted by ریچارد آرک رایت's factory system developed in the Derwent Valley, the community of New Lanark was created to provide housing for workers at the mills. Philanthropist رابرت اوون bought the site and turned it into a model community, providing public facilities, education, and supporting factory reform.[۲۸]
ادینبرو and ادینبرو of ادینبرو Looking down Royal Mile, Edinburgh.jpg ادینبرو, Scotland
۵۵°۵۶′۵۱″ شمالی ۳°۱۱′۳۰″ غربی / ۵۵.۹۴۷۵۷۲° شمالی ۳.۱۹۱۶۳۱° غربی / 55.947572; -3.191631 (Old and New Town of Edinburgh)[۲۹]
11th–19th قرن[۲۹] 728; 1995;
ii, iv
[۲۹]
The Old Town of Edinburgh was founded in the Middle Ages, and the New Town was developed in 1767–1890. It contrasts the layout of settlements in the medieval and modern periods. The layout and architecture of the new town, designed by luminaries such as William Chambers and William Playfair, influenced European urban design in the 18th and 19th centuries.[۲۹]
Pontcysyllte Aqueduct and Canal WalesC0047.jpg Trevor, Wrexham, Wales and England
۵۲°۵۸′۱۴″ شمالی ۳°۰۵′۱۶″ غربی / ۵۲.۹۷۰۵۳° شمالی ۳.۰۸۷۸۳° غربی / 52.97053; -3.08783 (Pontcysyllte Aqueduct and Canal)[۳۰]
۱۷۹۵–۱۸۰۵[۳۰] 1,303; 2009;
i, ii, iv
[۳۰]
The aqueduct was built to carry the Ellesmere Canal over the Dee Valley. Completed during the Industrial Revolution and designed by Thomas Telford, the aqueduct made innovative use of چدن and wrought iron, influencing civil engineering across the world.[۳۰][۳۱]
Royal Botanical Gardens, Kew Kew Gardens Palm House, London - July 2009.jpg Kew, لندن بزرگ, England
۵۱°۲۸′۲۹″ شمالی ۰°۱۷′۴۴″ غربی / ۵۱.۴۷۴۶۶۷° شمالی ۰.۲۹۵۴۶۷° غربی / 51.474667; -0.295467 (Royal Botanical Gardens, Kew)[۳۲]
18th–20th قرن[۳۲] 1,084; 2003;
ii, iii, iv
[۳۲]
Created in 1759, the influential Kew Gardens were designed by Charles Bridgeman, William Kent, Capability Brown, and William Chambers. The gardens were used to study botany and ecology and furthered the understanding of the subjects.[۳۲]
St Kilda St Kilda Village Bay.jpg St Kilda, Scotland
۵۷°۴۹′۰۰″ شمالی ۸°۳۵′۰۰″ غربی / ۵۷.۸۱۶۶۶۷° شمالی ۸.۵۸۳۳۳۳° غربی / 57.816667; -8.583333 (St Kilda)[۳۳]
n/a 387; 1987 (modified in 2005 and 2008);
ii, iii, iv
[۳۳]
Although inhabited for over 2,000 years, the isolated archipelago of St Kilda has had no permanent residents since 1930. The islands' human heritage includes various unique architectural features from the historic and prehistoric periods. St Kilda is also a breeding ground for many important seabird species including the world's largest colony of شمال and up to 136,000 pairs of puffins.[۳۳][۳۴]
Saltaire Saltaire from Leeds and Liverpool Canal.jpg Saltaire, City of Bradford, یورکشایر غربی, England
۵۳°۵۰′۱۴″ شمالی ۱°۴۷′۲۵″ غربی / ۵۳.۸۳۷۱۷° شمالی ۱.۷۹۰۲۶° غربی / 53.83717; -1.79026 (Saltaire)[۳۵]
۱۸۵۳[۳۵] 1,028; 2001;
ii, iv
[۳۵]
Saltaire was founded by mill-owner Titus Salt as a model village for his workers. The site, which includes the Salts Mill, featured public buildings for the inhabitants and was an example of 19th قرن paternalism.[۳۵]
Stonehenge, Avebury and Associated Sites Stonehenge back wide.jpg ویلتشایر, England
۵۱°۱۰′۴۴″ شمالی ۱°۴۹′۳۱″ غربی / ۵۱.۱۷۸۸۸۹° شمالی ۱.۸۲۵۲۷۸° غربی / 51.178889; -1.825278 (Stonehenge, Avebury and Associated Sites)[۳۶]
4th–2nd millennia BC[۳۶] 373; 1986 (modified in 2008);
i, ii, iii
[۳۶]
The دوران نوسنگی sites of Avebury and استون‌هنج are two of the largest and most famous megalithic monuments in the world. They relate to man's interaction with his environment. The purpose of the henges has been a source of speculation, with suggestions ranging from ceremonial to interpreting the cosmos. "Associated sites" includes Silbury Hill, Beckhampton Avenue, and West Kennet Avenue.[۳۶]
Studley Royal Park including the Ruins of Fountains Abbey Fountains Abbey view02 2005-08-27.jpg یورک‌شایر شمالی, England
۵۴°۰۶′۵۸″ شمالی ۱°۳۴′۲۳″ غربی / ۵۴.۱۱۶۱۱۱° شمالی ۱.۵۷۳۰۵۶° غربی / 54.116111; -1.573056 (Studley Royal Park including the Ruins of Fountains Abbey)[۳۷]
1132 (abbey),
19th قرن (park)
[۳۷]
372; 1986;
i, iv
[۳۷]
Before the Dissolution of the Monasteries in the mid-16th قرن, Fountains Abbey was one of the largest and richest Cistercian abbeys in Britain and is one of only a few that survives from the 12th قرن. The later garden, which incorporates the abbey, survives to a large extent in its original design and influenced garden design in Europe.[۳۷]
برج لندن Tower of London, Traitors Gate.jpg Tower Hamlets, لندن بزرگ, England
۵۱°۳۰′۲۹″ شمالی ۰°۰۴′۳۴″ غربی / ۵۱.۵۰۸۰۵۶° شمالی ۰.۰۷۶۱۱۱° غربی / 51.508056; -0.076111 (Tower of London)[۳۸]
11th قرن[۳۸] 488; 1988;
ii, iv
[۳۸]
Begun by ویلیام اول انگلستان in 1066 during the Norman conquest of England, the Tower of London is a symbol of power and an example of Norman military architecture that spread across England. Additions by هنری سوم انگلستان and ادوارد اول انگلستان in the 13th قرن made the castle one of the most influential buildings of its kind in England.[۳۸]
کاخ وست‌مینستر, کلیسای وست‌مینستر and Saint Margaret's Church Palace of Westminster.jpg وستمینستر, لندن بزرگ, England
۵۱°۲۹′۵۹″ شمالی ۰°۰۷′۴۳″ غربی / ۵۱.۴۹۹۷۲۲° شمالی ۰.۱۲۸۶۱۱° غربی / 51.499722; -0.128611 (Westminster Palace, Westminster Abbey and Saint Margaret's Church)[۳۹]
10th, 11th, and 19th centuries[۳۹] 426; 1987 (modified in 2008);
i, ii, iv
[۳۹]
The site has been involved in the administration of England since the 11th قرن, and later the United Kingdom. Since the coronation of William the Conqueror, all English and British monarchs have been crowned at Westminster Abbey. Westminster Palace, home to the پارلمان بریتانیا, is an example of Gothic Revival architecture; St Margaret's Church is the palace's parish church, and although it pre-dates the palace and was built in the 11th قرن, it has been rebuilt since.[۳۹][۴۰][۴۱]

فهرست پیشنهادی[ویرایش]

فهرست پیشنهادی موجودی از میراث مهم در انگلستان که برای ثبت پیشنهاد شده است.[۴۲] لیست پیشنهادی بریتانیا آخرین بار در تاریخ ۱۹ ژانویه ۲۰۰۶ بهنگام شد.، و شامل ۱۵ سایت به شرح زیر است:[۴۳]

  1. The Cairngorm Mountains, Scotland
  2. Chatham Naval Dockyard, England
  3. Darwin's Home and Workplace: Down House and Environs, England
  4. The Flow Country, Scotland
  5. The Forth Bridge, Scotland
  6. Fountain Cavern, آنگویلا – a limestone cavern which contains سرخ‌پوست glyphs carved into the rock.[۴۴]
  7. جبل طارق defences
  8. The Great Western Railway: Paddington-Bristol (selected parts), England
  9. Lake District, England
  10. منچستر and سالفورد (Ancoats, Castlefield and Worsley), England
  11. Monkwearmouth and Jarrow Monastic Sites, England
  12. Mount Stewart Gardens, Northern Ireland
  13. The New Forest, England
  14. ویلیام شکسپیر استراتفورد, England
  15. The Wash and شمال Norfolk Coast, England

همچنین مشاهده کنید[ویرایش]

یادداشت[ویرایش]

  1. United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland: Properties inscribed on the World Heritage List, UNESCO, retrieved ۲۰۰۹-۰۸-۱۶ 
  2. "The World Heritage Convention". UNESCO. Retrieved September 17, 2010. 
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منابع[ویرایش]

یادداشت
کتاب شناسی
  • Benvie, Neil (2000), Scotland's Wildlife, London: Aurum Press, ISBN 978-1854109781 
  • Derwent Valley Mills Partnership (2000), Nomination of the Derwent Valley Mills for inscription on the World Heritage List, Derwent Valley Mills Partnership 
  • Keay, J; Keay, J (1994), Collins Encyclopaedia of Scotland, London: Harper Collins, ISBN 0-00-255082-2 
  • Liddiard, Robert (2005), Castles in Context: Power, Symbolism and Landscape, 1066 to 1500, Macclesfield: Windgather Press Ltd, ISBN 0-9545575-2-2 
  • Thornbury, Walter (1878), "St Margaret's Westminster", Old and New London (Victoria County History) 3 

پیوند به بیرون[ویرایش]