فهرست بی‌خدایان

از ویکی‌پدیا، دانشنامهٔ آزاد
پرش به: ناوبری، جستجو

فهرست زیر دربرگیرنده نام برخی از مهم ترین مشاهیر بی‌خدا (به انگلیسی: Atheist) بر پایه شغلشان است؛ شامل تعدادی از اشخاص مشهوری که به وجود خدا یا خدایان اعتقاد نداشته و ندارند؛ و خداناباوری ایشان توسط خودشان از طریق آثار، یادداشت‌های روزانه، مکاتبات شخصی و غیره به اثبات رسیده است. افراد قائل به بی‌خدایی یهودی و بی‌خدایی مسیحی نیز در این فهرست جای دارند.

فلاسفه[ویرایش]


هنرمندان[ویرایش]


نویسندگان[ویرایش]


دانشمندان[ویرایش]

ابراهیمی


سیاستمداران و فعالان سیاسی[ویرایش]


ورزشکاران[ویرایش]


کارآفرینان[ویرایش]


پانویس[ویرایش]


  1. Autobiography, Chapter 2
  2. "This book is a presentation and defense of atheism." Atheism: The Case Against God, by George H. Smith, Prometheus Books, 1989, ISBN 0-87975-124-X
  3. Smith has written numerous papers arguing for the nonexistence of God.
  4. MIZ title in German: Materialien und Informationen zur Zeit (MIZ) (Untertitel: Politisches Magazin für Konfessionslose und AtheistInnen)
  5. "Like many other so-called "Atheists" I am also not a pure atheist, but actually an agnostic..." Life without God: A decision for the people (Automatic Google translation of the original, hosted at Schmidt-Salomon's website), by Michael Schmidt-Salomon November 19, 1996, first published in: Education and Criticism: Journal of Humanistic Philosophy and Free Thinking January 1997 (Accessed April 1, 2008)
  6. Multiple quotes from Bakunin substantiating his atheist views[۱].
  7. "He was so thoroughly an atheist that he rarely mentioned it, considering the topic of God to be beneath dicussion. In his autobiography, The Words, Sartre recalled deciding at about age twelve that God does not exist, and hardly thinking about it thereafter." 2000 Years of Disbelief: Famous People with the Courage to Doubt, James A. Haught, Prometheus Books, 1996.
  8. Kimball, Roger (2000). "The World According to Sartre". The New Criterion. Retrieved 2006-11-12. 
  9. Kemerling, Garth (October 27, 2001). "Sartre: Existential Life". Philosophy Pages. Britannica Internet Guide Selection. Retrieved 2006-11-12. 
  10. http://www.informationphilosopher.com/solutions/philosophers/dennett/ Daniel Dennett on Information Philosopher
  11. "An atheist, he rejected the burden of original sin, and preached the fundamental 'moral goodness of man.'" Condorcet's Reconsideration of America as a Model for Europe, Max M. Mintz, Journal of the Early Republic, Vol. 11, No. 4 (Winter, 1991), pp. 493-506 (p. 505), published by University of Pennsylvania Press on behalf of the Society for Historians of the Early American Republic
  12. Will and Ariel Durant, Rousseau and Revolution, p. 183
  13. Russell said: "As a philosopher, if I were speaking to a purely philosophic audience I should say that I ought to describe myself as an Agnostic, because I do not think that there is a conclusive argument by which one prove that there is not a God. On the other hand, if I am to convey the right impression to the ordinary man in the street I think I ought to say that I am an Atheist... None of us would seriously consider the possibility that all the gods of Homer really exist, and yet if you were to set to work to give a logical demonstration that Zeus, Hera, Poseidon, and the rest of them did not exist you would find it an awful job. You could not get such proof. Therefore, in regard to the Olympic gods, speaking to a purely philosophical audience, I would say that I am an Agnostic. But speaking popularly, I think that all of us would say in regard to those gods that we were Atheists. In regard to the Christian God, I should, I think, take exactly the same line." Am I an Agnostic or an Atheist?, from Last Philosophical Testament 1943–1968, (1997) Routledge ISBN 0-415-09409-7.
  14. Asked if Rand was an atheist, [Yaron] Brook said, "Yes, she was - and I have been since the age of 6, before I read Ayn Rand. But more than anti-religion, she was for reason. She spends time on the positive. She believed the way to evaluate things in life and reality is through reason, rational thought. That's what we try to emphasize." " George Hohmann, 'Ayn Rand relevant today, speaker says', Charleston Daily Mail (West Virginia), June 1, 2009, Pg. P5A (accessed 5 June 2009).
  15. Atheism is a legacy worth fighting for (as reprinted in the International Herald Tribune), an editorial by Slavoj Zizek, The New York Times, Tuesday, March 14, 2006 (Accessed July 2, 2007).
  16. The problem of consciousness meets "Intelligent Design", David Chalmers's blog ("As it happens, I'm an atheist").
  17. "Like everyone participating I'm what's called here a "secular atheist," except that I can't even call myself an "atheist" because it is not at all clear what I'm being asked to deny." Noam Chomsky, Edge Discussion of Beyond Belief: Science, Religion, Reason and Survival, November 2006 (accessed April 21, 2008).
  18. When people ask me, as they sometimes do, 'Are you an atheist?' I can only respond that I can't answer because I don't know what it is they're asking me. When people say, 'Do you believe in God?' what do they mean by it? Do I believe in some spiritual force in the world? In a way, yes. People have thoughts, emotions. If you want to call that a spiritual force, okay. But unless there's some clarification of what we're supposed to believe in or disbelieve in, I can't answer. Does one believe in a single god? Not if you believe in the Old Testament. A lot of it's polytheistic; it becomes monotheistic later on. Take the First Commandment, which presupposes that there are in fact other gods. It says, 'You shall have no other gods before me: Well if there aren't any other gods you can't say that. And, yes, it's coming from a polytheistic period, a period when the god of the Jews was the war god and they were supposed to worship him above all other gods. And he was genocidal, as you'd expect a war god to be.
  19. "Santayana playfully called himself 'a Catholic atheist,' but in spite of the fact that he deliberately immersed himself in the stream of Catholic religious life, he never took the sacraments. He neither literally regarded himself as a Catholic nor did Catholics regard him as a Catholic." Empiricism, Theoretical Constructs, and God, by Kai Nielsen, The Journal of Religion, Vol. 54, No. 3 (Jul., 1974), pp. 199-217 (p. 205), publishd by The University of Chicago Press
  20. "My atheism, like that of Spinoza, is true piety towards the universe, and denies only gods fashioned by men in their own image, to be servants of their human interests." George Santayana, 'On My Friendly Critics', in Soliloquies in England and Later Soliloquies, 1922 (from Rawson's Dictionary of American Quotations via credoreference.com (accessed August 1, 2008).
  21. Reviewing an episode of the Channel 4 series Voices: "On the one hand, Sir John Eccles, a quiet-spoken theist with the most devastating way of answering questions with a single "yes", on the other, Professor Searle, a flamboyant atheist using words I've never heard of or likely to again "now we know that renal secretions synthesize a substance called angiotensin and that angiotensin gets into the hypothalamus and causes a series of neuron firings". " Peter Dear, 'Today's television and radio programmes', The Times, February 22, 1984; pg. 31; Issue 61764; col A.
  22. Price, Joyce Howard (July 4, 2002). "Princeton bioethicist argues Christianity hurts animals". The Washington Times. "I am an atheist." 
  23. "Within Schopenhauer's vision of the world as Will, there is no God to be comprehended, and the world is conceived of as being meaningless." [۲]
  24. positiveatheism.org
  25. تاریخ تمدن ویل دورانت
  26. "Despite his atheism, Comte was concerned with moral regeneration and the establishment of a spiritual power." Mary Pickering, 'Auguste Comte and the Saint-Simonians', French Historical Studies Vol. 18, No. 1 (Spring 1993), pp. 211-236.
  27. "But tragically, Comte's "remarkable clearness and extent of vision as to natural things" was coupled with a "total blindness in regard to all that pertains to man's spiritual nature and relations." His "astonishing philosophic power" served only to increase the "plausibility" of a dangerous infidelity. Comte was, once unmasked, a "blank, avowed, unblushing Atheist." [...] Some of the Reformed writers were careful enough to note that technically Comte was not an atheist since he never denied the existence of God, merely his comprehensibility. Practically, however, this made little difference. It only pointed to the skepticism and nescience at the core of his positivism. The epistemological issues dominated the criticism of Comte. Quickly, his atheism was traced to his sensual psychology (or "sensualistic psychology", as Robert Dabney preferred to say)." Charles D. Cashdollar, 'Auguste Comte and the American Reformed Theologians', Journal of the History of Ideas Vol. 39, No. 1 (January–March 1978), pp. 61-79.
  28. "A self-confessed "religious atheist", Lipton was fully engaged with his religious culture, taking his family to synagogue on Saturdays and teaching children at the Sabbath school. He did not think it was necessary to believe in God to recognise the value of religion in providing the individual with a moral compass." 'Obituary of Professor Peter Lipton, Inspiring head of Cambridge's department of History and Philosophy whose atheism did not impede his religious observance', Daily Telegraph, December 17, 2007, Pg. 23.
  29. Contribution to the Critique of Hegel's Philosophy of Right, 1843
  30. On the filming of The Atheism Tapes with Jonathan Miller: "We had been friends for a number of years, and had discussed a great many topics, but we had never, except glancingly, ever spoken about religion. We knew about our shared atheism, but the subject didn’t seem to warrant much attention; in the Miller-McGinn world it was a non-existent topic. [...] It is often forgotten that atheism of the kind shared by Jonathan and me (and Dawkins and Hitchens et al.) has an ethical motive." Atheism Tapes, Colin McGinn, on his blog. (Accessed April 1, 2008)
  31. جی. ال. مکی, The Miracle of Theism, 1982.
  32. Die fröhliche Wissenschaft, aphorisms 108 and 125 [۳])
  33. Wine said "I am an atheist." Time Magazine January 29, 1965
  34. "While Shirley was (and is) a devout Catholic and so took the marriage as a commitment for eternity, Bernard, an atheist, had not done so when he made the wedding vows. Shirley says: "The Church and Bernard had a wonderful time debating all this. The theologians were so thrilled to be discussing it with a leading philosopher." " Stuart Jeffries, 'Profile: Bernard Williams', The Guardian, November 30, 2002, Saturday Review, Pg. 20.
  35. Stated in Mary Bryden's Deleuze and Religion Page 157
  36. 4
  37. Michael Lahanas. "Heraclitus". Retrieved 10 July 2012. "He is an atheist. "The world is not a work of God or anybody. This cosmos was not made by gods or men, but always was, and is, and ever shall be ever-living fire." "αἰὼν παῖς ἐστι παίζων, πεσσεύων· παιδὸς ἡ βασιληίη""
  38. Only fragments of Protagoras' treatise On the Gods survive, but it opens with the sentence: "Concerning the gods, I have no means of knowing whether they exist or not or of what sort they may be. Many things prevent knowledge including the obscurity of the subject and the brevity of human life."
  39. Hans-Georg Gadamer. «Neuere Philosophie I Hegel, Husserl, Heidegger». بازبینی‌شده در ۱ آوریل ۲۰۱۱. 
  40. Hume on Religion (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)
  41. "I am a radical Atheist..." Adams in an interview by American Atheists[۴].
  42. Woody Allen Quotes
  43. "Izzard is now back on the road with "Stripped," his first national tour in five years. The comedian, who returns to Cleveland for two dates Friday and Saturday at the Palace Theatre, said his current material is based largely around the notion of God. Specifically, Izzard said over the past few years he's been transformed from an agnostic into an atheist and he's using "Stripped" as a vehicle to present his argument. "What's kind of interesting is America really seems to be locked in step with God," Izzard said. "I just see god and the devil inside of people, as opposed to being up in the clouds. And why would he be in the clouds, it's so damp. Why would he have 4.5 billion years of the Earth and only develop language over the past 100,000 years? Because you can't have religion without language. And if you look at the voting record of God, it's (expletive). There's too much death, pestilence, all of that hell. Why did he do all that and if he didn't do that, then what's the point of that? He isn't controlling everything. I'm sure the Jewish people prayed really hard during World War II and nothing seemed to happen. That's my big conclusion." " John Benson interviewing Izzard, Comedian Izzard finds edge on stage, May 22, 2008 (accessed June 13, 2008).
  44. Thank God I'm an atheist: The surrealistic cinema of Luis Bunuel
  45. Singh, Anita (4 June 2009). Daniel Radcliffe: a cool nerd. London. Retrieved 6 June 2009. 
  46. Quotes from "There Is No God," You Are All Diseased. Carlin says on the same track that "there is no God. None, not one, no God, never was."
  47. "Film star Keanu Reeves, promoting his new supernatural thriller Constantine, told a South African newspaper that making the film - about demonic possession - had not caused him to embrace religion, and he still thought of himself as an atheist. "COMING OUT AS ATHEIST: IAN McEWAN & KEANU REEVES". secularism.org.uk. 
  48. Valby, ‎Karen. “Jodie Foster: Unbreakable”. Entertainment Weekly ed. 2007-08-30. 
  49. Interview: Kerry King of Slayer
  50. "Please, God - I'm an atheist so maybe I shouldn't be asking God - but let Barack Obama finally win the Democratic nomination and elect a person who seems to be not just enormously intelligent but also deeply humane and seems to have an imagination." Roger Waters interviewed by Mark Brown, Rocky Mountain Music, April 25, 2008 (accessed June 10, 2008).
  51. Richard Dawkins: You Ask The Questions Spec
  52. "And what about religion? Mr Hardy has always been an atheist. "If people become religious as a result of a prison sentence or a nervous breakdown, that's fine, but it isn't something that should be indoctrinated into children. If God wants to reveal himself, then let him reveal himself to people who have been through puberty and got their hormones settled down." " Fran Abrams interviewing Hardy, 'Comic Takes Teachers Near The Funny Bone', Times Educational Supplement, 3 May 2002, Pg.10.
  53. Dan Barker, The Good Atheist - Living a Purpose-Filled Life Without God, p.93
  54. Nugent, Micheal. Retrieved on May 5, 2011., Famous Atheists
  55. "The Pearl Fishers - Georges Bizet". Virginia Opera. Retrieved 19 April 2012. "At the end of the first year he was asked to submit a religious work as his required composition. As a self-described atheist, Bizet felt uneasy and hypocritical writing a religious piece. Instead, he submitted a comic opera. Publicly, the committee accepted, acknowledging his musical talent."
  56. The Guardian describes as "a devout atheist - Stravinsky later described him rather disapprovingly as having a mind 'closed to any religious or metaphysical idea'" [16]
  57. Atheist im Dommuseum: Hrdlicka stellt aus
  58. I am an atheist, out and out. It took me a long time to say it... I don't have the evidence to prove that God doesn't exist, but I so strongly suspect he doesn't that I don't want to waste my time." Isaac Asimov in "Free Inquiry", Spring 1982, vol.2 no.2, p. 9
  59. The Necessity of Atheism
  60. "[Beauvoir] remained an atheist until her death." Simone de Beauvoir (1908-1986), The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Accessed April 21, 2008)
  61. "I cannot be angry at God, in whom I do not believe." Haught (1996), p. 293
  62. Salman Rushdie: Religion ist „Gift für das Herz“
  63. Saramago the atheist, an outsider in his own land
  64. Why I Am An Atheist, Michael Shermer, June 2005 (accessed 31 March 2008)
  65. Phi Beta Cons on National Review Online
  66. Prophet of Decline, وال استریت ژورنال, 23 June 2005.
  67. David Simpson writes that Camus affirmed "a defiantly atheistic creed." Albert Camus (1913–1960), The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 2006, (Accessed June 14, 2007).
  68. Haught, James A. (1996). 2,000 Years of Disbelief: Famous People with the Courage to Doubt. Prometheus Books. pp. 261–262. ISBN 1-57392-067-3. 
  69. "...Stanley [Kubrick] is a Jew and I'm an atheist". Clarke quoted in Jeromy Agel (Ed.) (1970). The Making of Kubrick's 2001: p.306
  70. Goldman, Emma (February 1916). "The Philosophy of Atheism". Mother Earth. Retrieved December 7, 2007. 
  71. An Interview with Stanislaw Lem by Peter Engel. Missouri Review Volume 7, Number 2, 1984.
  72. "Jonathan Miller – Atheism Tapes: Arthur Miller". BBC, archived at Atheist Nation. Retrieved September 21, 2010. 
  73. Aziz Nesin of Turkey Dies at 80; Writer Escaped Militants' Arson
  74. "Secularism is not just a smug attitude. It is a possible way of democratic and pluralistic life that only became thinkable after several wars and revolutions had ruthlessly smashed the hold of the clergy on the state. ... I have spent all my life on the atheist side of this argument..." Hitchens in Slate.com article
  75. "The Problem with Atheism". Sam Harris at واشینگتن پست. September 28, 2007. Retrieved 6 December 2007. 
  76. When asked by Rod Liddle in the documentary The Trouble with Atheism "Give me your views on the existence, or otherwise, of God", Peter Atkins replied "Well it's fairly straightforward: there isn't one. And there's no evidence for one, no reason to believe that there is one, and so I don't believe that there is one. And I think that it is rather foolish that people do think that there is one.""The Trouble with Atheism, UK Channel 4 TV". 2006-12-18. 
  77. "A merciful and loving Creator he [Edison] considers not to be believed in. Nature, the supreme power, he recognizes and respects, but does not worship. Nature is not merciful and loving, but wholly merciless, indifferent." "No Immortality of the Soul" Says Thomas A. Edison, By Edward Marshall, The New York Times, October 2, 1910 (Retrieved 3 July 2010)
  78. "Within a year I had gone to Miss Graves to tell her that I no longer believed in God. 'I know,' she said, 'I have been through that myself.' But her strategy misfired: I never went through it." B.F. Skinner, pp. 387-413, E.G. Boring and G. Lindzey's A History of Psychology in Autobiography (Vol. 5), New York: Appleton Century-Crofts, 1967.).
  79. "The grandson of a vicar on his father’s side, Blackett respected religious observances that were established social customs, but described himself as agnostic or atheist." Mary Jo Nye: "Blackett, Patrick Maynard Stuart." Complete Dictionary of Scientific Biography, Vol. 19 p. 293. Detroit: Charles Scribner's Sons, 2008.
  80. Asked by his follower E. M. Kreps whether or not he was religious, Kreps wrote that Pavlov smiled and replied: "Listen, good fellow, in regard to [claims of] my religiosity, my belief in God, my church attendance, there is no truth in it; it is sheer fantasy. I was a seminarian, and like the majority of seminarians, I became an unbeliever, an atheist in my school years." Quoted in George Windholz, 'Pavlov's Religious Orientation', Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion Vol. 25 No. 3 (Sep., 1986), pp. 320-327.
  81. "... I [Pauling] am not, however, militant in my atheism. The great English theoretical physicist Paul Dirac is a militant atheist. I suppose he is interested in arguing about the existence of God. I am not. It was once quipped that there is no God and Dirac is his prophet." Linus Pauling & Daisaku Ikeda (1992). A Lifelong Quest for Peace: A Dialogue. Jones & Bartlett. pp. 22. ISBN 0867202777. 
  82. "I never outgrew my conversion to atheism at 13, but at various times was a serious cultural Jew." The Guardian Profile (November 6, 1999). "Steven Pinker: the mind reader". London: Guardian News and Media Limited. Retrieved 2006-12-10. 
  83. Paul Gray, Alan Turing[پیوند مرده] Time Magazine's Most Important People of the Century, p.2
  84. The Inspiration of Life and Death, 1928–1932 Alan Turing Scrapbook
  85. Dawkins, Richard (2006). The God Delusion. Transworld Publishers. p. 5. ISBN 0-593-05548-9.
  86. Quantum Physics: Paul Dirac
  87. [http://www.secularstudents.org/files/exchange/ScienceMagicBelief.pdf Richard Roberts James Randi Atheists, Agnostics & Freethinkers ]
  88. Feynman was of قوم یهود birth, but described himself as "an avowed بی‌خدایی" by his early youth in Freethought of the Day, Freedom From Religion Foundation, May 11, 2006.
  89. "Having abandoned the tenets of Judaism at 13, he never wavered in his gentle atheism, nor in his determination to stay away from matters about which he had opinions but no expertise." John Morrish reviewing the collection of Feynman's letters Don't You Have Time to Think?, "Particle Physics: The Route to Pop Stardom", Independent on Sunday (London), July 24, 2005, p. 21.
  90. "[Freud and Jung] were close for several years, but Jung's ambition, and his growing commitment to religion and mysticism — most unwelcome to Freud, an aggressive atheist — finally drove them apart." [http://www.time.com/time/time100/scientist/profile/freud.html Sigmund Freud], by Peter Gay, The TIME 100: The Most Important People of the Century.
  91. Francis Crick, What Mad Pursuit: a Personal View of Scientific Discovery, Basic Books reprint edition, 1990, ISBN 0-465-09138-5, p. 145.
  92. "How I Got Inclined Towards Atheism"
  93. Mark Steyn identify Crick as an atheist. See:The Twentieth-Century Darwin by Mark Steyn, published in آتلانتیک (مجله), October 2004.
  94. "Francis Crick was an evangelical atheist."Francis Crick's Legacy for Neuroscience: Between the α and the Ω
  95. "Instead, it is interlaced with descriptions of Crick’s vacations, parties and assertions of atheism — occasionally colorful stuff that drains the intellectual drama from the codebreaking."Genome Human
  96. "There is Crick the mentor, Crick the atheist, Crick the free-thinker, and Crick the playful."Entertaining Dr Crick
  97. Crick, 86, said: "The god hypothesis is rather discredited." Do our genes reveal the hand of God?
  98. ناپلئون بناپارت said to پیر لاپلاس: "You have written this huge book on the system of the world without once mentioning the author of the universe [God]." Laplace replied: "Sire, I had no need of that hypothesis." Quoted in Augustus De Morgan, A Budget of Paradoxes, London, Longmans, Green and Co., 1872. As found in http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/~history/Quotations/Laplace.html, accessed 13 February 2006.
  99. An appreciation of biologist Ernst Mayr (1904-2005)
  100. DNA father James Watson's 'holy grail' request May 10, 2009
  101. * Kitcher, Philip (1996). The Lives to Come: The Genetic Revolution and Human Possibilities. 
  102. A Designer Universe?
  103. Wozniak, Steven. "Letters – General Questions Answered". woz.org. Retrieved 2007-09-26. "... I am also atheist or agnostic (I don't even know the difference). I've never been to church and prefer to think for myself. I do believe that religions stand for good things, and that if you make irrational sacrifices for a religion, then everyone can tell that your religion is important to you and can trust that your most important inner faiths are strong."
  104. "Despite his atheism Huxley could appreciate Teilhard de Chardin's vision of evolution, and like his grandfather T. H. Huxley he believed progress could be described in biological terms." Robert Olby, 'Huxley, Sir Julian Sorell (1887–1975)', Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, Sept 2004; online edition, May 2007 (accessed May 2, 2008).
  105. [۵], Washington Post, Retrieved September 4, 2010
  106. [۶], Washington Post, Retrieved September 4, 2010
  107. "[...] then in 1896 at the age of thirteen went on, like all the boys in the family, to Haileybury College. Here he confirmed an unobtrusive atheism—he became disenchanted with church attendance and religious observance—and played rugby and cricket with the handicap of his small stature and lack of any real skill, but enjoyed the rifle corps." R. C. Whiting, 'Attlee, Clement Richard, first Earl Attlee (1883–1967)', Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, Sept 2004; online edition, January 2008 (accessed May 2, 2008).
  108. Stark called himself "a Unitarian who does not believe in a supreme being" and has been identified as an atheist. Rep. Stark applauded for atheist outlook: Believed to be first congressman to declare nontheism, Associated Press, March 13, 2007 (Accessed June 15, 2007)
  109. John Gray. «Was führen die Atheisten im Schilde?». ۱ آوریل ۲۰۰۸. بازبینی‌شده در ۱ آوریل ۲۰۱۱. 
  110. " All MPs may reserve a particular seat in Parliament for morning prayers, which they then keep for the rest of the day. Skinner, an atheist, refuses to pray, but still likes to 'bagsy' his favourite pew. Following a complaint from the Tory Chris Grayling, the Serjeant at Arms issued him with a formal reprimand. 'Dennis told him to get stuffed,' says a colleague. 'It's an excellent spot for heckling, and he's not going to vacate it without a fight.' " Guy Adams, 'Pandora', The Independent (London), December 13, 2005, Features, Pg. 14.
  111. Bradlaugh professes and defends atheism in his essay A Plea For Atheism.
  112. Robert Service (2009). Trotsky: A Biography. Cambridge, Massachusetts: انتشارات دانشگاه هاروارد. pp. 199–201. ISBN 0–67–4036–158
  113. Hall 2004. "Ernesto "Che" Guevara, an atheist, has been reborn a saint in the desolate Bolivian village where he was captured and executed nearly 37 years ago. Like many a saint, he's also a tourist draw."
  114. Sanati 2007. "[Mostafa] Chamran was a revolutionary Shiite Muslim whereas Che Guevara was totally atheistic."
  115. "I don't believe in God because I don't believe in Mother Goose." Clarence Darrow, speech in Toronto, 1930, as quoted in Breaking the Last Taboo (1996) by James A. Haught.
  116. "I say that religion is the belief in future life and in God. I don't believe in either." Clarence Darrow, 'Law is 'Horrible' says Darrow, 79', New York Times, April 19, 1936.
  117. "In spite of all the yearnings of men, no one can produce a single fact or reason to support the belief in God and in personal immortality." Clarence Darrow, Sign magazine, May 1938 (from Rawson's Dictionary of American Quotations via credoreference.com, accessed August 1, 2008).
  118. "Although an atheist, Romme did not support deChristianization, nor did he regret the fall of Maximilien Robespierre." Historical Dictionary of the French Revolution, by Paul R. Hanson, Scarecrow Press, 2004, p. 281 (Accessed April 15, 2008)
  119. "She died an atheist, from stomach cancer, on January 23, 1932 [...]." Brian Harrison, 'Phillips, Marion (1881–1932)', Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, Sept 2004; online edition, January 2008 (accessed May 2, 2008).
  120. Bourne, Fidel Castro, 1988
  121. "I am an atheist. But I... respect the feelings and the religious beliefs of each citizen." Gorbachev interview with Peter Jennings, ای‌بی‌سی نیوز, Sept. 6, 1991, reported in نیویورک تایمز, Sept. 7, 1991.
  122. Atheism: An Affirmative View (1980) by Emmett F. Fields
  123. hyperhistory.net
  124. "[Pod Znamenem Marksizma] must be a militant atheist organ... a journal which sets out to propagandise militant materialism must carry on untiring atheist propaganda and an untiring atheist fight." On the Significance of Militant Materialism, V. I. Lenin, Pod Znamenem Marksizma No. 3, March 12, 1922, as published in Lenin’s Collected Works, Progress Publishers, Moscow, Volume 33, 1972, pp. 227-236 (Translated by David Skvirsky and George Hanna), hosted at Marxists Internet Archive (Accessed November 14, 2007)
  125. "I assume you're an atheist? I am too. Isn't life easier?" "Ken Livingstone: The Interview". attitude. Retrieved 2008-04-25. 
  126. «M-Mao». بازبینی‌شده در ۱ آوریل ۲۰۱۱. 
  127. Interview With David Miliband. . CNN, July 5, 2009.  Retrieved on January 24, 2010.
  128. Bolelli 2008، ص 161
  129. Little 1996، ص 122
  130. Lance Armstrong's book: It's Not About the Bike: My Journey Back to Life, published by G.P Putnam's Sons 2000. pp. 116-118
  131. Marjorie Richardson. «Interview: Linus Torvalds»(en). بازبینی‌شده در ۱۹ می۲۰۱۰. 
  132. Mark Zuckerberg on Facebook
  133. Zuckerberg "considers himself an atheist." Just How Much Do We Want to Share On Social Networks?, by Vauhini Vara, The Wall Street Journal, November 28, 2007 (Accessed March 30, 2008).
جستجو در ویکی‌انبار در ویکی‌انبار پرونده‌هایی دربارهٔ فهرست بی‌خدایان موجود است.

منابع[ویرایش]

  • ویکی‌پدیای انگلیسی

جستارهای وابسته[ویرایش]