فقه دانش بدست آوردن احکام شرعی فرعی بوسیله روشهای معینی از منابع فقهاست.
احکام شرعی دو دسته هستند:
برای بدست آوردن احکام (اعم از اصلی و فرعی) به کار گیری علوم مختلفی لازم است، که از آنها به عنوان مقدمات اجتهاد نام میبرند.
توضیحاتی در مورد تعریف معروف [ویرایش]
قید «شرعی»، احکام عقلی (مانند احکام مطرح در فلسفه)
واژه شناسی [ویرایش]
واژه فقه به معنی درک کردن ِ و فهمیدن عمیق است  اما از آنجا که مسلمانان علم و فهم از دین را شریفتر از سایر علوم می دانستهاند، فقط فهم دین را فقه نامیدهاند و اینگونه بود که اصطلاح علم فقه به وجود آمد.
منابع فقه [ویرایش]
منابع فقه اسلامی عبارتند از مجموعه گزارههایی (اعم از آنکه عقل به این گزارهها پی برده باشد یا فقط توسط شارع بیان شده باشد)که فرد آگاه به علوم لازم (مثل فقه، اصول فقه، علم الحدیث و...) میتواند با استفاده از آنها احکام شرعی فرعی را بدست آورد.
احکام فقهی [ویرایش]
بنابر این یک فقیه علاوه بر بدست آوردن روش انجام مناسک شرعی از منابع فقه، باید حکم هر کاری را نیز مشخص کند. اما اگر بعد از آنکه در منابع فقهی جستجوی لازم را انجام داد در حرام بودن چیزی شک کرد، با برقراری شرایط اصل برائت اعلام میشود که مسلمانان میتوانند آن کار را انجام دهند.
تاریخ فقه [ویرایش]
در سالهای نخستین ظهوراسلام، علم فقه معنای مصطلح فعلی را که در کنار سایر علوم حکمت و تفسیر و کلام قرار میگیرد نداشتهاست.[نیازمند منبع]
ساختار کتابهای فقهی [ویرایش]
سپس هر کدام از این دو قسمت اصلی به چندین بخش که معمولاً آن را باب و یا کتاب مینامند تقسیم میشود. مثلاً بابالقضاء زیر مجموعهای از معاملات (عام) است که در آن به احکام قضاوت پرداخته میشود. بابهای اصلی کتب فقه از این قرار اند:
سبکهای فقهی شیعه [ویرایش]
مکاتب فقهی [ویرایش]
در نزد اهل سنت که به بسته بودن باب اجتهاد معتقداند، مذاهب فقهی منحصر در چهار مذهب حنبلی و مالکی و حنفی و شافعی است و از این رو علم فقه در نزد اهل سنت عمدتاً به معنای آموزش و اشاعه مکتب فقهی این چهار پیشوای فقهی اهل سنت است. اما مکتب فقهی شیعه که به مذهب جعفری موسوم است، برای هر مجتهدی و در هر زمانی قدرت استنباط قائل است و در نتیجه معتقد است که باید هر مومن مکلف یا خود مجتهد باشد و یا در فروع فقهی از یک مجتهد واجد شرایط پیروی و تقلید کند. اهل سنت تنها روایات موثقی را که از پیامبر اسلام رسیده، و حاکی از قول یا فعل اوست، به عنوان یکی از منابع استنباط قبول دارند، اما شیعیان در استنباط احکام، علاوه بر عقل، قرآن و سیره پیامبر بر روایاتی که از ائمه اطهار به طور قابل اعتماد رسیده باشد، نیز اتکا میکنند.
1. ↑ مشکینی، میرزا علی، اصطلاحات الأصول و معظم أبحاثها، در یک جلد، نشر الهادی، قم - ایران، ششم، ۱۴۱۶ ه ق ص ۱۸۰ 2. ↑ (آیتالله العظمی) سبحانی، جعفر. الموجز فی اصول الفقه. موسسه امام صادق. قم. ۱۳۸۷ ص ۹ 3. ↑ زین الدین العاملی (معروف به شهید ثانی). الروضة البهیة فی شرح اللمعة الدمشقیة اللمعة الدمشقیة و الرّوضة البهیّة. کتاب القضاء. 4. ↑ فيومى، احمد بن محمد مقرى، المصباح المنير في غريب الشرح الكبير للرافعي، در يك جلد، منشورات دارالرضي، قم - ايران، اول، ه ق :الفِقْهُ: فَهم الشَّيءِ قَالَ ابْنُ فَارِسٍ وَ كُلُّ عِلْمٍ لِشَيءٍ فَهُوَ فِقْهٌ . 5. ↑ مصطفوى، حسن، التحقيق في كلمات القرآن الكريم، 14 جلد، مركز الكتاب للترجمة و النشر، تهران - ايران، اول، 1402 ه ق:( أنّ الأصل الواحد في المادّة: هو فهم على دقّة و تأمّل، و بهذا القيد يفترق عن موادّ العلم و المعرفة و الفهم و غيرها.) 6. ↑ ابن منظور، ابو الفضل، جمال الدين، محمد بن مكرم، لسان العرب، 15 جلد، دارالفكر للطباعة و النشر و التوزيع - دار صادر، بيروت - لبنان، سوم، 1414 ه ق( مدخل فقه:الفِقْهُ: العلم بالشيء و الفهمُ له، و غلبَ على عِلْم الدين لسِيادَتِه و شرفه و فَضْلِه على سائر أَنواع العلم كما غلب النجمُ على الثُّرَيَّا و العُودُ على المَنْدَل؛ قال ابن الأَثير: و اشْتِقاقهُ من الشَّقِّ و الفَتْح، و قد جَعَله العُرْفُ خاصّاً بعلم الشريعة، شَرَّفَها الله تعالى، و تَخْصيصاً بعلم الفروع منه) 7. ↑ (آیت الله العظمی) خویی، حسین. شرح العروة الوثقی. مقدمه، تعریف اجتهاد. 8. ↑ زین الدین العاملی (معروف به شهید ثانی). الروضة البهیة فی شرح اللمعة الدمشقیة اللمعة الدمشقیة و الرّوضة البهیّة. کتاب القضاء. 9. ↑ (علامه) مظفر، محمد رضا. اصول الفقه. بوستان کتاب قم. ۱۳۸۸. ص۲۱. 10. ↑ سعدی ابو جیب، القاموس الفقهی لغة و اصطلاحاً، در یک جلد، دارالفکر، دمشق - سوریه، دوم، ۱۴۰۸ ه ق مدخلهای احکام پنج گانه. 11. ↑ شب خیز ، محمد رضا. اصول فقه دانشگاهی. 12. ↑ وَمَا كَانَ الْمُؤْمِنُونَ لِيَنْفِرُوا كَافَّةً ۚ فَلَوْلَا نَفَرَ مِنْ كُلِّ فِرْقَةٍ مِنْهُمْ طَائِفَةٌ لِيَتَفَقَّهُوا فِي الدِّينِ وَلِيُنْذِرُوا قَوْمَهُمْ إِذَا رَجَعُوا إِلَيْهِمْ لَعَلَّهُمْ يَحْذَرُونَ 13. ↑ جوادی آملی، عبدالله (۱۳۸۵)، دینشناسی، قم: اسراء، صص ۲۵۰-۱ 14. ↑ تاریخ فقه و فقهای امامیه. محل نشر: ناشر، سال نشر: تهران: دانشگاه امام صادق (ع)، ۱۳۸۷. 15. ↑ نمایندگی ولی فقیه در سپاه پاسدارن انقلاب اسلامی. آشنایی با ابواب فقه. 16. ↑ حقق حلی (متوفی ۶۷۶) «شرایع الاسلام» 17. ↑ شهید صدر. الفتاوی الواضحة. دارالبشیر. الطبعة الاولی. ص ۱۴۴، ۱۴۳ 18. ↑ ین الدین العاملی (معروف به شهید ثانی). الروضة البهیة فی شرح اللمعة الدمشقیة اللمعة الدمشقیة و الرّوضة البهیّة. 19. ↑ طباطبایی یزدی، سید محمد کاظم. العروة الوثقی. انتشارات اسماعیلیان. فهرست. 20. ↑ کتاب فقه گویا - محمد صادقی تهرانی - انتشارات امید فردا - چاپ اول ۱۳۸۲ 21. ↑ جامعة علوم القرآن پایگاه تخصصی علوم قرآنی 22. ↑ توضیح المسائل مراجع. دو جلدی. مسئله اول التقلید. 23. ↑ زین الدین العاملی. کتاب القضاء. ذیل (و من السنة...).
Fiqh (Arabic: فقه [fiqh]) is Islamic jurisprudence. Fiqh is an expansion of the code of conduct (Sharia) expounded in the Quran, often supplemented by tradition (Sunnah) and implemented by the rulings and interpretations of Islamic jurists.
Fiqh deals with the observance of rituals, morals and social legislation in Islam. There are four prominent schools (madh'hab) of fiqh within Sunni practice and two within Shi'a practice. A person trained in fiqh is known as a Faqih (plural Fuqaha).
The word fiqh is an Arabic term meaning "deep understanding" or "full comprehension". Technically it refers to the body of Islamic law extracted from detailed Islamic sources (which are studied in the principles of Islamic jurisprudence) and the process of gaining knowledge of Islam through jurisprudence. The historian Ibn Khaldun describes fiqh as "knowledge of the rules of God which concern the actions of persons who own themselves bound to obey the law respecting what is required (wajib), sinful (haraam), recommended (mandūb), disapproved (makrūh) or neutral (mubah)". This definition is consistent amongst the jurists.
In Modern Standard Arabic, fiqh has come to mean jurisprudence in general, be it Islamic or secular. It is thus possible to speak of Chief Justice John G. Roberts, Jr. as an expert in the common law fiqh of the United States, or of Abdel Razzaq El sanhouri Pasha as an expert in the civil law fiqh of Egypt.
The Qur'an gives clear instruction on many issues, such as how to perform the ritual purification (wudu) before the obligatory daily prayers (salat), but on other issues, some Muslims believe the Qur'an alone is not enough to make things clear. For example the Qur'an states one needs to engage in daily prayers (salat) and fast (sawm) during the month of Ramadan but some Muslims believe they need further instructions on how to perform these duties. Details about these issues can be found in the traditions of Muhammad, so Qur'an and Sunnah are in most cases the basis for (Shariah).
Some topics are without precedent in Islam's early period. In those cases, Muslim jurists (Fuqaha) try to arrive at conclusions by other means. Sunni jurists use historical consensus of the community (Ijma); a majority in the modern era also use analogy (Qiyas) and weigh the harms and benefits of new topics (Istislah), and a plurality utilize juristic preference (Istihsan). The conclusions arrived at with the aid of these additional tools constitute a wider array of laws than the Sharia consists of, and is called fiqh. Thus, in contrast to the sharia, fiqh is not regarded as sacred and the schools of thought have differing views on its details, without viewing other conclusions as sacrilegious. This division of interpretation in more detailed issues has resulted in different schools of thought (madh'hab).
This wider concept of Islamic jurisprudence is the source of a range of laws in different topics that govern the lives of the Muslims in all facets of everyday life.
Component Categories 
Islamic jurisprudence (fiqh) covers two main areas:
These types of rules can also fall into two groups:
Rules in relation to actions ('amaliyya — عملية) comprise:
Rules in relation to circumstances (wadia') comprise:
Fields of jurisprudence 
Methodologies of jurisprudence 
There are different approaches to the methodology used in jurisprudence to derive Islamic law from the primary sources. The main methodologies are those of the Sunni, Shi'a and Ibadi denominations. While both Sunni and Shi'ite are divided into smaller sub-schools, the differences among the Shi'ite schools is considerably greater. Ibadites only follow a single school without divisions.
Sunni jurisprudence 
Sunni schools of jurisprudence are each named after the classical jurist who taught them. The four primary Sunni schools are the Hanafi, Shafi'i, Maliki and Hanbali rites. The Zahiri school remains in existence but outside of the mainstream, while the Jariri, Laythi, Awza'i and Thawri have since become extinct.
The extant schools share most of their rulings, but differ on the particular practices which they may accept as authentic and the varying weights they give to analogical reason and pure reason.
Shi'ite jurisprudence 
Ja'fari jurisprudence 
The Ja'fari school is associated with Ja'far al-Sadiq. The time and space bound rulings of early jurists are taken more seriously in this school, likely due to the more hierarchical structure of Shia Islam which is ruled by the Shi'ite Imams. The Ja'fari school is also more flexible in that every jurist has considerable power to alter a decision according to his reasoning.
The Jafari school uses the intellect instead of analogy when establishing Islamic laws, as opposed to common Sunni practice.
Ismaili jurisprudence 
Daim al-Islam is a book on the rulings of Islam followed by Ismaili Muslims who adhere to the Shi'a Ismaili Fatimid fiqh. It describes manners and etiquette, including Ibadat in the light of guidance provided by the Ismaili Imams. The book emphasizes what importance Islam has given to manners and etiquette along with the worship of God, citing the traditions of the first four Imams of the Shi'a Ismaili Fatimid school of thought.
Zaidi jurisprudence 
Zaidi jurisprudence follows the teachings of Zayd ibn Ali. In terms of law, the Zaidi school is quite similar to the Hanafi school from Sunni Islam. This is likely due to the general trend of Sunni resemlbance within Zaidi beliefs. After the passing of Muhammad, Imam Jafar al-Sadiq, Imam Zayd ibn Ali, Imams Abu Hanifa and Imam Malik ibn Anas worked together in Al-Masjid an-Nabawi in Medina along with over 70 other leading jurists and scholars. Jafar al-Sadiq and Zayd ibn Ali did not them selves write any books. But their views are Hadiths in the books written by Imams Abu Hanifa and Imam Malik ibn Anas. Therefore the Zaydis to this day and originally the Fatamids, used the Hanafi jurisprudence, as did most Sunnis.
Ibadi jurisprudence 
The Ibadi school of Islam is named after Abd-Allah ibn Ibadh, though he is not necessarily the main figure of the school in the eyes of its adherents. Ibadism is distinct from both Sunni and Shi'ite Islam not only in terms of its jurisprudence, but also its core beliefs.
Arguments for and against reform 
Each school reflects a unique al-urf or culture (a cultural practice that was influenced by traditions), that the classical jurists themselves lived in, when rulings were made. Some suggest that the discipline of isnad, which developed to validate hadith made it relatively easy to record and validate also the rulings of jurists. This, in turn, made them far easier to imitate (taqlid) than to challenge in new contexts. The argument is, the schools have been more or less frozen for centuries, and reflect a culture that simply no longer exists. Traditional scholars hold that religion is there to regulate human behavior and nurture people's moral side and since human nature has not fundamentally changed since the beginning of Islam a call to modernize the religion is essentially one to relax all laws and institutions.
Early shariah had a much more flexible character, and some modern Muslim scholars believe that it should be renewed, and that the classical jurists should lose special status. This would require formulating a new fiqh suitable for the modern world, e.g. as proposed by advocates of the Islamization of knowledge, which would deal with the modern context. This modernization is opposed by most conservative ulema. Traditional scholars hold that the laws are contextual and consider circumstance such as time, place and culture, the principles they are based upon are universal such as justice, equality and respect. Many Muslim scholars argue that even though technology may have advanced, the fundamentals of human life have not and is in the scope of current laws.
Diagram of early scholars 
The Quran set the rights, the responsibilities and the rules for people and for societies to adhere to, like not dealing in interest. Muhammad then provided an example, which is recorded in the hadith books, showing people how he practically implemented these rules in a society. After the passing of Muhammad, there was a need for jurists, to decide on new legal matters where there is no such ruling in the Quran or the Hadith, example of Islamic prophet Muhammad regarding a similar case. In the years proceeding Muhammad, Imam Jafar al-Sadiq whose views many Shias follow and Imam Abu Hanifa and Malik ibn Anas whose views most Sunnis follow worked together in Al-Masjid an-Nabawi in Medina. Along with Qasim ibn Muhammad ibn Abu Bakr, Muhammad al-Baqir, Zayd ibn Ali and over 70 other leading jurists and scholars.
All the Muslims follow the Quran and the example of Muhammad. The differences between the denominations in Islam are primarily political. The Sunnis give more importance to the Quran and the books containing the hadith, examples of Muhammad, but since all the early scholars and all the four caliphs worked together, the Sunnis accept all the first four caliphs, as they were elected by the community. They also accept all the early imams (scholars) for their knowledge. While the Shias who constitute around 10-20% of the Muslims are more hereditary and only accept Ali the fourth caliph and only accept the male descendent of Ali through his son Hussein as imams. But different branches of Shia accept different brothers.
All these scholars were taught by Muhammads companions, many of whom settled in Madina. Muwatta by Malik ibn Anas was written as a consensus of the opinion, of these scholars. The Muwatta by Malik ibn Anas quotes 13 hadiths from Imam Jafar al-Sadiq.
Qasim ibn Muhammad ibn Abu Bakrs mother was from Alis family and Qasims daughter Farwah bint al-Qasim was married to Muhammad al-Baqir and was the mother of Jafar al-Sadiq. Therefore Qasim ibn Muhammad ibn Abu Bakr was the grand son of Abu Bakr the first caliph and the grand father of Jafar al-Sadiq whose views the twelver Shias follow. The twelver Shia do not accept Abu Bakr as the first caliph but do accept his great grand son Jafar al-Sadiq.
Aishas also taught her nephew Urwah ibn Zubayr. He then taught his son Hisham ibn Urwah, who was the main teacher of Malik ibn Anas whose views many Sunni follow and also taught Jafar al-Sadiq. Qasim ibn Muhammad ibn Abu Bakr, Hisham ibn Urwah and Muhammad al-Baqir taught Zayd ibn Ali, Jafar al-Sadiq, Abu Hanifa, and Malik ibn Anas.
Al-Shafi‘i was taught by Malik ibn Anas. Ahmad ibn Hanbal was taught by Al-Shafi‘i. Muhammad al-Bukhari travelled every where collecting hadith and his father Ismail ibn Ibrahim was a student of Malik ibn Anas
In the books actually written by these original jurists and scholars, there are very few theological and judicial differences between them. Imam Ahmad rejected the writing down and codifying of the religious rulings he gave. They knew that they might have fallen into error in some of their judgements and stated this clearly. They never introduced their rulings by saying, "Here, this judgement is the judgement of God and His prophet."  There is also very little text actually written down by Jafar al-Sadiq him self. They all give priority to the Qur'an and the Hadith (the practice of Muhammad). They felt that the Quran and the Hadith, the example of Muhammad provided people with almost everything they needed. "This day I have perfected for you your religion and completed My favor upon you and have approved for you Islam as religion" Quran 5:5.
These Scholars did not distinguish between each other. They were not Sunni or Shia. They felt that they were following the religion of Abraham as described in the Quran "Say: Allah speaks the truth; so follow the religion of Abraham, the upright one. And he was not one of the polytheists" (Qur'an 3:95).
Most of the differences are regarding Sharia laws devised through Ijtihad where there is no such ruling in the Quran or the Hadiths of Islamic prophet Muhammad regarding a similar case. As these jurists went to new areas, they were pragmatic and continued to use the same ruling as was given in that area during pre-islamic times, if the population felt comfortable with it, it was just and they used Ijtihad to deduce that it did not conflict with the Quran or the Hadith. As explained in the Muwatta by Malik ibn Anas. This made it easier for the different communities to integrate into the Islamic State and assisted in the quick expansion of the Islamic State.
To reduce the divergence, ash-Shafi'i proposed giving priority to the Qur'an and the Hadith (the practice of Muhammad) and only then look at the consensus of the Muslim jurists (ijma), and analogical reasoning (qiyas). This then resulted in jurists like Muhammad al-Bukhari dedicating their lives to the collection of the correct Hadith, in books like Sahih al-Bukhari. Sahih translates as authentic or correct. They also felt that Muhammads judgement was more impartial and better than their own.
During the Abbasid period, many history books were also written as a reference for future generations, recording everything people were saying about the early history of Islam. They were not subject to the same level of authenticity checks.
These original jurists and scholars also acted as a counterbalance, against the rulers. When they saw injustice, all these scholars spoke out against it. As the state expanded out side Madina, the rights of the different communities, as they were constituted in the Constitution of Medina still applied. The Quran also gave additional rights to the citizens of the state and these rights were also applied. Ali, Hassan and Hussein ibn Ali gave their allegiance to the first three caliphs because they abided by these conditions. Later Ali the fourth caliph wrote in a letter "I did not approach the people to get their oath of allegiance but they came to me with their desire to make me their Amir (ruler). I did not extend my hands towards them so that they might swear the oath of allegiance to me but they themselves extended their hands towards me". But later as fate would have it (Predestination in Islam) when Yazid I, an oppressive ruler took power, Hussein ibn Ali the grand son of Muhammad felt that it was a test from God for him and his duty to confront him. Then Abd Allah ibn al-Zubayr, Qasim ibn Muhammad ibn Abu Bakrs cousin confronted the Umayyad rulers after Hussein ibn Ali was betrayed by the people of Kufa and killed by Syrian Roman Army now under the control of the Yazid I the Umayyad ruler. After a lengthy campaign, on his last hour Abd Allah ibn al-Zubayr asked his mother Asma' bint Abu Bakr the daughter of Abu Bakr the first caliph for advice. Asma' bint Abu Bakr replied to her son, she said: "You know better in your own self, that if you are upon the truth and you are calling towards the truth go forth, for people more honourable than you have been killed and if you are not upon the truth, then what an evil son you are and you have destroyed yourself and those who are with you. If you say, that if you are upon the truth and you will be killed at the hands of others, then you will not truly be free". Abd Allah ibn al-Zubayr left and was later also killed and crucified by the Syrian Roman Army now under the control of the Umayyads. Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr the son of Abu Bakr the first caliph and raised by Ali the fourth caliph was also killed by the Ummayads. Aisha then raised and taught his son Qasim ibn Muhammad ibn Abu Bakr who later taught his grandson Jafar al-Sadiq. In 740, Abu Hanifah supported his friend Zayd ibn Ali against an Umayyad ruler. Abu Hanifah, Malik ibn Anas and Zayd ibn Ali's family feared that Zayd ibn Ali would get betrayed in Kufa. In 767 Abu Hanifah died in prison when he refused to support the Abbasid ruler Al-Mansur and Malik ibn Anas was flogged.
These scholars also laid the foundations of Science in the medieval Islamic world and some scientists and Mathematicians on the List of Muslim scientists were taught by these scholars, they then taught other scholars. Islam discourages the belief in superstition. Hence these scholars felt that humans could truly appreciate God magnificence, by studying Gods creation.
Quran 45:3  "Indeed, within the heavens and earth are signs for the believers."
For them Islam and science were linked  The students of these scholars also preserved and translated the Greek and Latin manuscripts during the Dark Ages (historiography) in Europe. They were also instrumental in the making of the European Renaissance Many of the early advances in astronomy were made because the Muslims relied on the Sun, the Moon and the stars for the times to pray, and the time of Ramadan and the direction to the Mecca, for the direction to pray and for navigation in the desert and the sea.
The differences between the denominations in Islam are primerily political and appeared due to politics. Some of the elite in the old empires of the Middle East felt discontented with the passage of their empires and did not like the Arab Caliphs, their ideas eventually found their way into the religious differences. In many cases the preislamic customs of the populations that converted to Islam were also absorbed into their rituals. This also amplified the differences. During the Arab-Byzantine Wars the Byzantines benefited when there were political disagreements between the Muslims and used the time to establishment of the themata. Some of the ideas of the kharijites who were initially very extreme in their support of Ali's caliphate, but later killed Ali when he made peace with Mu'awiyah also lived on.
Ali according to both the Sunni and the Shia books was against sectarianism. The following sermon of Ali exists in both the Sunni and the Shia books.
"Ali says: With regard to me, two categories of people will be ruined, namely he who loves me too much and the love takes him away from rightfulness, and he who hates me too much and the hatred takes him away from rightfulness. The best man with regard to me is he who is on the middle course. So be with him and be with the great majority of Muslims because Allah’s hand of protection is on keeping unity. You should beware of division because the one isolated from the group is a prey to Satan just as the one isolated from the flock of sheep is a prey to the wolf. Beware! Whoever calls to this course of sectarianism, even though he may be under this headband of mine."
After the Mongolian invasion and the subsequent reduction in the literacy rates, people began to label them selves as belonging to denominations rather than actually reading the books of these scholars.
The differences amplified after the Safavid invasion of Persia and the subsequent Safavid conversion of Iran to Shia Islam due to the politics between the Safavids and the Ottoman Empire. To consolidate their position, the Safavid's also exploited the deep rooted differences between areas formally under the Persian Sassanid Empire and areas formally under the Byzantine Roman Empire. Differences that existing from the Roman-Persian Wars and the Byzantine-Sassanid Wars. Under the oppressive rule of Yazid I, some Muslims began to think that if Hussein ibn Ali the descendent of Muhammad was their ruler, he would have been more just. However later a minority, took this concept one step further and also started thinking, what if history took a different course and these ideas were later odopted by some Shia and institutionalised by the Safavids. For the first time in the history of Islam, the Safavids also established a hierarchical organization of the Shiite clergy and funded this hierarchy through the collection of waqf and Khums. Before that point Jafar al-Sadiq disapproved of people who said anything bad about his great grand father Abu Bakr the first caliph.
After witnessing what happens due to the lust for wealth and power, others like Hasan of Basra advocated piety and the condemnation of worldliness which later influenced the development of the Sufis. It was further developed by Al-Ghazali.
Early history 
The formative period of Islamic jurisprudence stretches back to the time of the early Muslim communities. In this period, jurists were more concerned with issues of authority and teaching than with theory and methodology.
Progress in theory and methodology happened with the coming of the early Muslim jurist Muhammad ibn Idris ash-Shafi`i (767–820), who codified the basic principles of Islamic jurisprudence in his book ar-Risālah. The book details the four roots of law (Qur'an, Sunnah, ijma, and qiyas) while specifying that the primary Islamic texts (the Qur'an and the hadith) be understood according to objective rules of interpretation derived from scientific study of the Arabic language.
Secondary sources of law were developed and refined over the subsequent centuries, consisting primarily of juristic preference (istihsan), laws of the previous prophets (shara man qablana), continuity (istishab), extended analogy (maslaha mursala), blocking the means (sadd al-dhari'ah), custome urf and saying of a companion (qawl al-sahabi).
A number of important legal institutions were developed by Muslim jurists during the classical period of Islam, known as the Islamic Golden Age. One such institution was the Hawala, an early informal value transfer system, which is mentioned in texts of Islamic jurisprudence as early as the 8th century. Hawala itself later influenced the development of the agency in common law and in civil laws such as the aval in French law and the avallo in Italian law. The "European commenda" (Islamic Qirad) used in European civil law may have also originated from Islamic law.
The Waqf in Islamic law, which developed during the 7th–9th centuries, bears a notable resemblance to the trusts in the English trust law. For example, every Waqf was required to have a waqif (settlor), mutawillis (trustee), qadi (judge) and beneficiaries. The trust law developed in England at the time of the Crusades, during the 12th and 13th centuries, was introduced by Crusaders who may have been influenced by the Waqf institutions they came across in the Middle East.
The Islamic lafif was a body of twelve members drawn from the neighbourhood and sworn to tell the truth, who were bound to give a unanimous verdict, about matters "which they had personally seen or heard, binding on the judge, to settle the truth concerning facts in a case, between ordinary people, and obtained as of right by the plaintiff." The only characteristic of the English jury which the Islamic lafif lacked was the "judicial writ directing the jury to be summoned and directing the bailiff to hear its recognition." According to Professor John Makdisi, "no other institution in any legal institution studied to date shares all of these characteristics with the English jury." It is thus likely that the concept of the lafif may have been introduced to England by the Normans, who conquered both England and the Emirate of Sicily, and then evolved into the modern English jury.
Several other fundamental common law institutions may have been adapted from similar legal institutions in Islamic law and jurisprudence, and introduced to England by the Normans after the Norman conquest of England and the Emirate of Sicily, and by Crusaders during the Crusades. In particular, the "royal English contract protected by the action of debt is identified with the Islamic Aqd, the English assize of novel disseisin is identified with the Islamic Istihqaq, and the English jury is identified with the Islamic lafif." Other English legal institutions such as "the scholastic method, the licence to teach", the "law schools known as Inns of Court in England and Madrasas in Islam" and the "European commenda" (Islamic Qirad) may have also originated from Islamic law. The methodology of legal precedent and reasoning by analogy (Qiyas) are also similar in both the Islamic and common law systems. These influences have led some scholars to suggest that Islamic law may have laid the foundations for "the common law as an integrated whole".
See also 
Further reading