The face is a central sense organ complex, normally on the ventral surface of the head for animals that have one.
Human face 
The front of human head is called the face and includes several distinct areas. The main features are:
Facial appearance is vital for human recognition and communication. Facial muscles in humans allow expression of emotions.
The face is itself a highly sensitive region of the human body and its expression may change when the brain is stimulated by any of the five senses: touch, temperature smell, taste, hearing, and visual stimuli.
Individuality and recognition 
The face is the feature which best distinguishes a person. Specialised regions of the human brain, such as the fusiform face area (FFA), enable facial recognition; when these are damaged, it may be impossible to recognise faces even of intimate family members. The pattern of specific organs, such as the eyes, or of parts of them, is used in biometric identification to uniquely identify individuals.
By extension, anything which is the forward or world facing part of a system which has internal structure is considered its "face", like the façade of a building. For example a public relations or press officer might be called the "face" of the organization he or she represents. "Face" is also used metaphorically in a sociological context to refer to reputation or standing in society, particularly Chinese society, and is spoken of as a resource which can be won or lost. Because of the association with individuality, the anonymous person is sometimes referred to as "faceless".
Plastic surgery 
Cosmetic surgery can be used to alter the appearance of the facial features. Plastic surgery may also be used in cases of facial trauma, injury to the face. Severely disfigured individuals have recently received full face transplants and partial transplants of skin and muscle tissue.
Various face profiles as caricatures
Caricatures often exaggerate facial features to make a face more easily recognised in association with a pronounced portion of the face of the individual in question—for example, a caricature of Osama bin Laden might focus on his facial hair and nose; a caricature of George W. Bush might enlarge his ears to the size of an elephant's; a caricature of Jay Leno may pronounce his head and chin; and a caricature of Mick Jagger might enlarge his lips. Exaggeration of memorable features helps people to recognise others when presented in a caricature form.
Perception and recognition of faces 
Gestalt psychologists theorise that a face is not merely a set of facial features but is rather something meaningful in its form. This is consistent with the Gestalt theory that an image is seen in its entirety, not by its individual parts. According to Gary L. Allen, people adapted to respond more to faces during evolution as the natural result of being a social species. Allen suggests that the purpose of recognizing faces has its roots in the "parent-infant attraction, a quick and low-effort means by which parents and infants form an internal representation of each other, reducing the likelihood that the parent will abandon his or her offspring because of recognition failure". Allen's work takes a psychological perspective that combines evolutionary theories with Gestalt psychology.
Faces are essential to expressing emotion, consciously or unconsciously. A frown denotes disapproval; a smile usually means someone is pleased. Being able to read emotion in another's face is "the fundamental basis for empathy and the ability to interpret a person’s reactions and predict the probability of ensuing behaviors". One study used the Multimodal Emotion Recognition Test to attempt to determine how to measure emotion. This research aimed at using a measuring device to accomplish what people do so easily everyday: read emotion in a face.
People are also relatively good at determining if a smile is real or fake. A recent study looked at individuals judging forced and genuine smiles. While young and elderly participants equally could tell the difference for smiling young people, the "older adult participants outperformed young adult participants in distinguishing between posed and spontaneous smiles". This suggests that with experience and age, we become more accurate at perceiving true emotions across various age groups.
Biological perspective 
Research has indicated that certain areas of the brain respond particularly well to faces. The fusiform face area, within the fusiform gyrus, is activated by faces, and it is activated differently for shy and social people. A study confirmed that "when viewing images of strangers, shy adults exhibited significantly less activation in the fusiform gyri than did social adults". Furthermore, particular areas respond more to a face that is considered attractive, as seen in another study: "Facial beauty evokes a widely distributed neural network involving perceptual, decision-making and reward circuits. In those experiments, the perceptual response across FFA and LOC remained present even when subjects were not attending explicitly to facial beauty".
See also 
- ^ Face | Define Face at Dictionary.com. Dictionary.reference.com. Retrieved on 2011-04-29.
- ^ Anatomy of the Face and Head Underlying Facial Expression. Face-and-emotion.com. Retrieved on 2011-04-29.
- ^ Ho, David Yau-fai (January 1976). "On the Concept of Face". American Journal of Sociology 81 (4): 867–84.: "The concept of face is, of course, Chinese in origin".
- ^ Plastic and Cosmetic Surgery: MedlinePlus. Nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved on 2011-04-29.
- ^ information about caricatures. Edu.dudley.gov.uk. Retrieved on 2011-04-29.
- ^ Allen, Gary L.; Peterson, Mary A.; Rhodes, Gillian (2006). "Review: Seeking a Common Gestalt Approach to the Perception of Faces, Objects, and Scenes". American Journal of Psychology 119 (2): 311–19. doi:10.2307/20445341. JSTOR 20445341.
- ^ Multimodal Emotion Recognition Test (MERT) | Swiss Center for Affective Sciences. Affective-sciences.org. Retrieved on 2011-04-29.
- ^ Bänziger, T., Grandjean, D., & Scherer, K. R. (2009). "Emotion recognition from expressions in face, voice, and body: The Multimodal Emotion Recognition Test (MERT)". Emotion 9 (5): 691–704. doi:10.1037/a0017088. PMID 19803591.
- ^ Murphy, N. A., Lehrfeld, J. M., & Isaacowitz, D. M. (2010). "Recognition of posed and spontaneous dynamic smiles in young and older adults". Psychology and Aging 25 (4): 811–821. doi:10.1037/a0019888. PMC 3011054. PMID 20718538.
- ^ Beaton, E. A., Schmidt, L. A., Schulkin, J., Antony, M. M., Swinson, R. P. & Hall, G. B. (2009). "Different fusiform activity to stranger and personally familiar faces in shy and social adults". Social Neuroscience 4 (4): 308–316. doi:10.1080/17470910902801021. PMID 19322727.
- ^ Chatterjee, A., Thomas, A., Smith, S. E., & Aguirre, G. K. (2009). "The neural response to facial attractiveness". Neuropsychology 23 (2): 135–143. doi:10.1037/a0014430. PMID 19254086.