شیرینی به ماده غذایی اطلاق میگردد که ماده اصلی آن شکر یا پودر قند یا قندهای مصنوعی باشد و در تعریف آنقدر گسترده است که شکلاتها را هم در بر میگیرد. در اغلب شیرینیها، آرد و تخممرغ ماده اصلی دیگری علاوه بر مادهٔ شیرین کننده بشمار میآیند.
بر اساس ساختار[ویرایش]
بر پایه مواد تشکیل دهنده[ویرایش]
* تارتها: تارت در شیرینی جات به نان زیرین شیرینی اطلاق میشود که در ترکیب آن شکر نیز به کار رفته است. در صورتیکه تارت در قالبهای کوچک تهیه شود تارتلت (Tartlet) نامیده میشود. پایها در واقع نوعی تارت شیرینی میباشند که رویه آنها با لایهای از خمیر پوشانده شده است.
شیرینیها در شیرینی فروشیهای ایران به دو دسته اصلی شیرینی خشک و تر تقسیم می شوند. شیرینیهای خشک شیرینی هایی هستند که در تهیه آنها از خامه استفاده نشده باشد و قابلیت نگه داری برای مدت بالا را داشته باشند. از معروفترین این شیرینیها میتوان به شیرینی زبانی، کشمشی، دانمارکی و مربایی اشاره کرد. شیرینیهای تر شیرینی هایی هستند که در تهیه آنها از خامه استفاده شده باشد و برای نگه داری باید در محیط یخچال نگهداری شوند. از معروفترین این شیرینیها میتوان به شیرینی خامهای و رولت اشاره کرد. ایران هم شیرینیهای اصیل قدیمی مانند گز و سوهان رادارد.
تنوع بسیار زیادی در شیرینیهای ایرانی وجود دارد. با اینکه اصولاً عمر شیرینهای تر به خاطر شرایط نگهداری آنان و همچنین کم بودن تولید و مصرف محصولات لبنی در ایران درمقایسه با کشورهای اروپایی، نمیتواند زیاد بوده باشد، تنوع این نوع شیرینیها به نوعی بیانگر خلاقیت و ظرافت طبع ایرانی میباشد. ایرانیان تاریخی طولانی در تولید شیرینی جات داشته اند، بستنی، نه البته به صورت فعلی، ۲۴۰۰ سال پیش در ایران اختراع شده است و ریشه تاریخی شیرینیهای خشک غربی (cookie) به کلوچه ایرانی در ۱۳۰۰ سال پیش میرسد. البته حداقل در مورد بستنی، ایرانیان آنچنان در تاریخ تحول آن مشارکت نداشته اند که شاید ریشه در کم بودن تولید و مصرف محصولات لبنیاتی در آسیا نسبت به اروپا داشته باشد، که آن هم ریشه در مشکل دار بودن هضم لاکتوز برای اکثر مردم آسیا دارد.
پیوند به بیرون[ویرایش]
Pastry is the name given to various kinds of baked products made from ingredients such as flour, sugar, milk, butter, shortening, baking powder, and eggs. Small tarts and other sweet baked products are called "pastries."
Pastry may also refer to the dough from which such baked products are made. Pastry dough is rolled out thin and used as a base for baked products. Common pastry dishes include pies, tarts, quiches and pasties.
Pastry is differentiated from bread by having a higher fat content, which contributes to a flaky or crumbly texture. A good pastry is light and airy and fatty, but firm enough to support the weight of the filling. When making a shortcrust pastry, care must be taken to blend the fat and flour thoroughly before adding any liquid. This ensures that the flour granules are adequately coated with fat and less likely to develop gluten. On the other hand, overmixing results in long gluten strands that toughen the pastry. In other types of pastry such as Danish pastry and croissants, the characteristic flaky texture is achieved by repeatedly rolling out a dough similar to that for yeast bread, spreading it with butter, and folding it to produce many thin layers.
Pastries go back to the ancient Mediterranean with almost paper-thin, multi-layered baklava and filo. Northern Europe took on pastry-making after the Crusaders brought it back from the Mediterranean. French and Italian Renaissance chefs eventually perfected the puff and choux pastries, while 17th and 18th century chefs brought new recipes to the table. These new pastries included brioche, Napoleons, cream puffs, and éclairs. French chef Antonin Carême reportedly was the first to incorporate art in pastry making.
Different kinds of pastries are made by utilizing the natural characteristics of wheat flour and certain fats. When wheat flour is mixed with water and kneaded into plain dough, it develops strands of gluten, which are what make bread tough and elastic. In a typical pastry, however, this toughness is unwanted, so fat or oil is added to slow down the development of gluten. Lard or suet work well because they have a coarse, crystalline structure that is very effective. Using unclarified butter does not work well because of its water content; clarified butter, which is virtually water-free, is better, but shortcrust pastry using only butter may develop an inferior texture. If the fat is melted with hot water or if liquid oil is used, the thin oily layer between the grains offers less of an obstacle to gluten formation and the resulting pastry is tougher.
The European tradition of pastry-making is often traced back to the shortcrust era of flaky doughs that were in use throughout the Mediterranean in ancient times.
In the ancient Mediterranean, the Romans, Greeks and Phoenicians all had filo-style pastries in their culinary traditions. There is also strong evidence that Egyptians produced pastry-like confections. They had professional bakers that surely had the skills to do so, and they also had needed materials like flour, oil, and honey. In the plays of Aristophanes, written in the 5th century BC, there is mention of sweetmeats, including small pastries filled with fruit. The Roman cuisine used flour, oil and water to make pastries that were used to cover meats and fowls during baking in order to keep in the juices, but the pastry was not meant to be eaten. A pastry that was meant to be eaten was a richer pastry that was made into small pastries containing eggs or little birds and that were often served at banquets. Greeks and Roman both struggled in making a good pastry because they used oil in the cooking process, and oil causes the pastry to lose its stiffness.
In the medieval cuisine of Northern Europe, pastry chefs were able to produce nice, stiff pastries because they cooked with shortening and butter. Some incomplete lists of ingredients have been found in medieval cookbooks, but no full, detailed versions. There were stiff, empty pastries called coffins or 'huff paste', that were eaten by servants only and included an egg yolk glaze to help make them more enjoyable to consume. Medieval pastries also included small tarts to add richness.
It was not until about the mid-16th century that actual pastry recipes began appearing. These recipes were adopted and adapted over time in various European countries, resulting in the myriad pastry traditions known to the region, from Portuguese "pastéis de nata" in the west to Russian "pirozhky" in the east. The use of chocolate in pastry-making in the west, so commonplace today, arose only after Spanish and Portuguese traders brought chocolate to Europe from the New World starting in the 16th century. Many culinary historians consider French pastry chef Antonin Carême (1784–1833) to have been the first great master of pastry making in modern times.
Pastry-making also has a strong tradition in many parts of Asia. Chinese pastry is made from rice, or different types of flour, with fruit, sweet bean paste or sesame-based fillings. Beginning in the 19th century, the British brought western-style pastry to the far east, though it would be the French-influenced Maxim in the 1950s that made western pastry popular in Chinese-speaking regions starting with Hong Kong. Still, the term "western cake" (西餅) is used to differentiate between the automatically assumed Chinese pastry[clarification needed] Other Asian countries such as Korea prepare traditional pastry-confections such as tteok, hangwa, and yaksik with flour, rice, fruits, and regional specific ingredients to make unique desserts. Japan also has specialized pastry-confections better known as mochi and manjū. Pastry-confections that originate in Asia are clearly distinct from those that originate in the west, which are generally much sweeter.
Pastry chefs use a combination of culinary ability and creativity in baking, decoration, and flavoring with ingredients. Many baked goods require a lot of time and focus. Presentation is an important aspect of pastry and dessert preparation. The job is often physically demanding, requiring attention to detail and long hours. Pastry chefs are also responsible for creating new recipes to put on the menu, and they work in restaurants, bistros, large hotels, casinos and bakeries. Pastry baking is usually done in an area slightly separate from the main kitchen. This section of the kitchen is in charge of making pastries, desserts, and other baked goods.