شیرینی به ماده غذایی اطلاق میگردد که ماده اصلی آن شکر یا پودر قند یا قندهای مصنوعی باشد و در تعریف آنقدر گسترده است که شکلاتها را هم در بر میگیرد. در اغلب شیرینیها، آرد و تخممرغ ماده اصلی دیگری علاوه بر مادهٔ شیرین کننده بشمار میآیند.
انواع شیرینی [ویرایش]
بر اساس ساختار [ویرایش]
بر پایه مواد تشکیل دهنده [ویرایش]
* تارتها: تارت در شیرینی جات به نان زیرین شیرینی اطلاق میشود که در ترکیب آن شکر نیز به کار رفته است. در صورتیکه تارت در قالبهای کوچک تهیه شود تارتلت (Tartlet) نامیده میشود. پایها در واقع نوعی تارت شیرینی میباشند که رویه آنها با لایهای از خمیر پوشانده شده است.
شیرینیهای ایرانی [ویرایش]
شیرینیها در شیرینی فروشیهای ایران به دو دسته اصلی شیرینی خشک و تر تقسیم می شوند. شیرینیهای خشک شیرینی هایی هستند که در تهیه آنها از خامه استفاده نشده باشد و قابلیت نگه داری برای مدت بالا را داشته باشند. از معروفترین این شیرینیها میتوان به شیرینی زبانی، کشمشی، دانمارکی و مربایی اشاره کرد. شیرینیهای تر شیرینی هایی هستند که در تهیه آنها از خامه استفاده شده باشد و برای نگه داری باید در محیط یخچال نگهداری شوند. از معروفترین این شیرینیها میتوان به شیرینی خامهای و رولت اشاره کرد. ایران هم شیرینیهای اصیل قدیمی مانند گز و سوهان رادارد.
تنوع بسیار زیادی در شیرینیهای ایرانی وجود دارد. با اینکه اصولاً عمر شیرینهای تر به خاطر شرایط نگهداری آنان و همچنین کم بودن تولید و مصرف محصولات لبنی در ایران درمقایسه با کشورهای اروپایی، نمیتواند زیاد بوده باشد، تنوع این نوع شیرینیها به نوعی بیانگر خلاقیت و ظرافت طبع ایرانی میباشد. ایرانیان تاریخی طولانی در تولید شیرینی جات داشته اند، بستنی، نه البته به صورت فعلی، ۲۴۰۰ سال پیش در ایران اختراع شده است و ریشه تاریخی شیرینیهای خشک غربی (cookie) به کلوچه ایرانی در ۱۳۰۰ سال پیش میرسد. البته حداقل در مورد بستنی، ایرانیان آنچنان در تاریخ تحول آن مشارکت نداشته اند که شاید ریشه در کم بودن تولید و مصرف محصولات لبنیاتی در آسیا نسبت به اروپا داشته باشد، که آن هم ریشه در مشکل دار بودن هضم لاکتوز برای اکثر مردم آسیا دارد.
پیوند به بیرون [ویرایش]
Pastry is the name given to various kinds of baked products made from ingredients such as flour, sugar, milk, butter, shortening, baking powder, and/or eggs. Small tarts and other sweet baked products are called "pastries."
Pastry may also refer to the dough from which such baked products are made. Pastry dough is rolled out thinly and used as a base for baked products. Common pastry dishes include pies, tarts, quiches and pasties.
Pastry is differentiated from bread by having a higher fat content, which contributes to a flaky or crumbly texture. A good pastry is light and airy and fatty, but firm enough to support the weight of the filling. When making a shortcrust pastry, care must be taken to blend the fat and flour thoroughly before adding any liquid. This ensures that the flour granules are adequately coated with fat and less likely to develop gluten. On the other hand, overmixing results in long gluten strands that toughen the pastry. In other types of pastry, such as Danish pastry and croissants, the characteristic flaky texture is achieved by repeatedly rolling out a dough similar to that for yeast bread, spreading it with butter, and folding it to produce many thin layers of folds.
Main types of pastry 
Pastries go back to the ancient Mediterranean with almost paper-thin, multi-layered baklava and filo. Northern Europe took on pastry-making after the Crusaders brought it back from the Mediterranean. French and Italian Renaissance chefs eventually perfected the Puff and Choux pastries, while 17th and 18th century chefs brought new recipes to the table. These new pastries included brioche, Napoleons, cream puffs, and éclairs. French chef Antonin Carême reportedly was the first to incorporate art in pastry making.
Chemistry of a pastry 
Different kinds of pastries are made by the nature of wheat flour and also due to certain types of fats. When wheat flour is kneaded into plain dough and made with water it develops strands of gluten, which are what make the bread tough and elastic. In a typical pastry, however, this toughness is unwanted so fat or oil is put in to slow down the development of gluten. It is common to use lard or suet here because they have a coarse, crystalline structure that is very effective. Using only unclarified butter does not always work well because of its water content; clarified butter is virtually water free. Shortcrust pastry using only butter may develop an inferior texture. If the fat is melted with hot water, or if liquid oil is used, the thin oily layer between the grains offers less obstacle to gluten formation and the resulting pastry is tougher.
European traditions of pastry-making is often traced back to the short crust era flaky doughs that were in use throughout the Mediterranean in ancient times.
In the ancient Mediterranean, the Romans, Greeks and Phoenicians all had filo-style pastries in their culinary traditions. There is also strong evidence that Egyptians produced pastry-like confections. They had professional bakers that surely had the skills to do so, and they also had needed materials like flour, oil, and honey. In the plays of Aristophanes, in 5th century BC, there are mentions of sweetmeats including small pastries filled with fruit. The Roman cuisine used flour, oil and water to make pastries that were used to cover meats and fowls. They did this during baking to keep in the juices, but this was not meant to be eaten by people. A pastry that was meant to be eaten was a richer pastry that was made into small pastries and contained eggs or little birds. It was often served at banquets. Greeks and Roman both struggled in making a good pastry because they both used oil in the cooking process and oil causes the pastry to lose its stiffness.
In medieval cuisine of North Europe they were able to produce nice, stiff pastries because they cooked with shortening and butter. There were some incomplete lists of ingredients found in medieval cookbooks, but no full, detailed versions. There were stiff, empty pastries called coffins or 'huff paste', that were eaten by servants only and included an egg yolk glaze to help make them more enjoyable to consume. Medieval pastries also included small tarts to add richness to the snack.
It was not until about the Mid 16th century that actual pastry recipes showed up. These recipes were adopted and adapted over time in various European countries, resulting in the myriad pastry traditions known to the region, from Portuguese "pastéis de nata" in the west to Russian "pirozhky" in the east. The use of chocolate in pastry-making in the West, so commonplace today, arose only after Spanish and Portuguese traders brought chocolate to Europe from the New World starting in the 16th century. Many culinary historians consider French pastry chef Antonin Carême (1784–1833) to have been the first great master of pastry making in modern times.
Pastry-making also has a strong tradition in many parts of Asia. Chinese pastry is made from rice, or different types of flour, with fruit, sweet bean paste or sesame-based fillings. Beginning in the 19th century, the British brought western-style pastry to the far east, though it would be the French influenced Maxim in the 1950s that made western pastry popular in Chinese-speaking regions starting with Hong Kong. Still, the term "Western Cake" (西餅) is used to differentiate between the automatically assumed Chinese pastry. Other Asian countries such as Korea have traditionally prepared pastry-confections such as tteok, hangwa, and yaksik with flour, rice, fruits, and regional specific ingredients to make unique type desserts. And Japan also has specialized pastry-confections better known as mochi and manjū. Pastry-confection that originate in Asia are clearly distinct from those that originate in the West that are generally much sweeter.
Pastry chef 
Pastry chefs use a combination of culinary ability and creativity in baking, decoration, and flavoring with ingredients. Many baked goods require a lot of time and focus. Presentation is an important part of pastry and dessert preparation. The job is often physically demanding; requiring attention to detail and long hours. They are also responsible for creating new recipes to put on the menu. Pastry chefs work in restaurants, bistros, large hotels, casinos and bakeries. Pastry baking is usually held in a slightly separate part from the main kitchen. This section of the kitchen is in charge of making pastries, desserts, and other baked goods.
See also