زکریای رازی

از ویکی‌پدیا، دانشنامهٔ آزاد
پرش به: ناوبری، جستجو
فارسی English
ابوبکر محمد بن زکریای رازی
مجسمهٔ زکریای رازی در پارک ملت، تهران
متولد ۲۴۳ خورشیدی
شعبان ۲۵۱ ه.ق.۲۷ اوت ۸۶۵
ری
مرگ ۹ آبان۳۰۴ ه.خ.۵ شعبان ۳۱۳ ه.ق.
۱۵ اکتبر ۹۲۵
ری
رشته فعالیت دانشمند و فیلسوف

ابوبکر محمّد زَکَریای رازی (۲۵۱ ه.ق.۳۱۳ ه.ق.)[۱] پزشک، فیلسوف و شیمی‌دان ایرانی که آثار ماندگاری در زمینهٔ پزشکی و شیمی و فلسفه نوشته است و به‌عنوان کاشف الکل و جوهر گوگرد (اسید سولفوریک) مشهور است.

به گفته جرج سارتن، پدر تاریخ علم، رازی «بزرگ‌ترین پزشک ایران در زمان قرون وسطی بود.»

به پاس زحمات فراوان رازی در داروسازی روز پنجم شهریورماه (۲۷ اوت)، روز بزرگداشت زکریای رازی شیمی‌دان بزرگ ایرانی و روز داروسازی نام‌گذاری شده است.

زندگی[ویرایش]

نام وی محمد و نام پدرش زکریا و کنیه‌اش ابوبکر است. مورخان شرقی در کتاب‌هایشان او را محمد بن زکریای رازی خوانده‌اند، اما اروپائیان و مورخان غربی از او به نام‌های رازس Rhazes=razes و الرازی Al-Razi در کتاب‌های خود یاد کرده‌اند. به گفته ابوریحان بیرونی وی در شعبان سال ۲۵۱ هجری (۸۶۵ میلادی) در ری زاده شد و دوران کودکی و نوجوانی و جوانی‌اش دراین شهر گذشت. چنین شهرت دارد که در جوانی عود می‌نواخته و گاهی شعر می‌سروده‌است. بعدها به زرگری و سپس به کیمیاگری روی آورد. وی در سنین بالا علم طب را آموخت. بیرونی معتقد است او در ابتدا به کیمیا اشتغال داشته و پس از آن که در این راه چشمش در اثر کار زیاد با مواد تند و تیزبو آسیب دید، برای درمان چشم به پزشکی روی آورد.[۲] در کتاب‌های مورخان اسلامی آمده‌است که رازی طب را در بیمارستان بغداد آموخته‌است، در آن زمان بغداد مرکز بزرگ علمی دوران و جانشین دانشگاه جندی شاپور بوده‌است و رازی برای آموختن علم به بغداد سفر کرد و مدتی نامعلوم در آن‌جا اقامت گزید و به تحصیل علم پرداخت و سپس ریاست بیمارستان «معتضدی» را برعهده گرفت. پس از مرگ معتضد خلیفه عباسی، به ری بازگشت و عهده‌دار ریاست بیمارستان ری شد و تا پایان عمر در این شهر به درمان بیماران مشغول بود. رازی در آخر عمرش نابینا شد، درباره علت نابینا شدن او روایت‌های مختلفی وجود دارد، بیرونی سبب کوری رازی را کار مداوم با مواد شیمیایی چون بخار جیوه می‌داند.

رازی در تاریخی بین ۵ شعبان ۳۱۳ (قمری) ه.ق.*[۳] الی ۳۱۳ ه.ق. در ری وفات یافته‌است. مکان اصلی آرامگاه رازی نامعلوم است.

رد وحی و نبوت[ویرایش]

رازی به خدا و ماوراءالطبیعه اعتقاد داشت[۴] با این وجود، وی نبوت و وحی را نفی می‌کرد و ضرورت آن را نمی‌پذیرفت[۵]. در تفکر رازی همه انسانها قدرت و توانایی رسیدن به معرفت و دانایی را دارند و لذا از لحاظ توانی کسب معرف با هم برابرند و بر یکدیگر هیچ برتری ندارند. از دیدگاه او مقتضای حکمت و رحمت الهی این است که انسانها همگی به منافع و مضار خود صاحب علم باشند و اگر خدا قومی را به نبوت اختصای دهد به این معناست که آنها را بر دیگر انسانها برتری داده و این برتری باعث جنگ و دشمنی و در نهایت هلاکت انسانها می شود که این با حکمت و رحمت الهی سازگاری ندارد.[۶] کتب زیر به این اعتقاد وی اشاره دارند.[۷][۸]

  • «فی‌النبوات» [۹] که دیگران به طعن و استهزاء نام او را «نقض الادیان» نهاده‌اند.[۱۰]
  • «فی حیل المتنبین» [۱۱] دیگران به طعن نام او را «مخارق الانبیاء» گذاشته‌اند.[۱۲]

دو کتاب بالا اکنون در دست نیست. اما جنیفر مایکل در کتابش نقل قول هایی از کتب بالا می آورد[۱۳]. همچنین احمد بیرشک می نویسد: «از تعلیمات او این بود که همه آدمیان سهمی از خرد دارند که بتوانند نظرهای صحیح درباره مطالب عملی و نظری به‌دست آورند، آدمیان برای هدایت شدن به رهبران دینی نیاز ندارند، در حقیقت دین زیان‌آورد است و مسبب کینه و جنگ. نسبت به همه مقامات همه سرزمین‌ها شک داشت.»[۱۴].

گروهی معتقدند این تفکرات رازی موجب خشم علمای اسلامی علیه او شد و او را ملحد خواندند و آثار او را رد کردند و دست به نابودی آنها زدند[نیازمند منبع]. گروهی نیز معتقدند «چگونه ممکن است کسی همه اصول مبدأ و معاد و روح و نفس را پذیرفته باشد و منکر نبوات و شرایع باشد؟». آنها خصوصاً به این نکته اشاره دارند که رازی سه کتاب در مورد امامت نگاشته. در حالی که «کسی که منکر شرایع و نبوات باشد درباره امامت حساسیتی ندارد.»[۱۵]

برخی همچون نویسنده "خزینه الصفیا" او را از اکابر صوفیه می‌شمارند که پیوسته از خوف خدا در گریه بود. غلام سرور هندی در تاریخ وفات او سروده است:

چون شد از دنیا به فردوس برین حضرت بوبکر رازی اهل راز
وصل او بوبکر محبوب حبیب هست هم صوفی کامل پاکباز

هر یک از جمله‌های "ابوبکر محبوب حبیب" و "صوفی کامل پاکباز" از نظر ابجدی ۳۱۰ می‌باشد که -به نقلی- اشاره به سال فوت اوست[۱۶][۱۷]. وی همچنین انتقاداتی بر ادیان دیگر دارد:

  • کتابی در "رد سیسن ثنوی" (رد بر مانویت) [۱۸]

در مورد تاریخ تولد و مرگ رازی[ویرایش]

مهم‌ترین سند تاریخی دربارهٔ تولد و مرگ رازی کتاب «فهرست کتب رازی» نوشتهٔ ابوریحان بیرونی است. در این کتاب تولد رازی در ماه شعبان ۲۵۱ (قمری) ه.ق (سپتامبر ۸۶۵ میلادی) و درگذشت او در پنجم شعبان ۳۱۳ ه.ق. (۳۱ اکتبر ۹۲۵ میلادی) ثبت شده‌است. ضمناً «در این رساله ابوریحان علاوه بر آن که صریحاً تاریخ تولد و وفات رازی را متذکر شده، مدت عمر او را به سال قمری شصت و دو سال و پنج روز و به شمسی شصت سال و دو ماه و یک روز به‌طور دقیق آورده‌است.»[۱۹]

اخلاق و صفات رازی[ویرایش]

رازی مردی خوش‌خو و در تحصیل کوشا بود. وی به بیماران توجه خاصی داشت و تا زمان تشخیص بیماری دست از آن‌ها برنمی‌داشت و نسبت به فقرا و بینوایان بسیار رئوف بود. رازی برخلاف بسیاری از پزشکان که بیشتر مایل به درمان پادشاهان و امراء و بزرگان بودند، با مردم عادی بیشتر سروکار داشته‌است. ابن‌الندیم در کتاب «الفهرست» خود می‌گوید: «تفقد و مهربانی به همه کس، به ویژه فقراء و بیماران داشته، از حالشان جویا، و به عیادتشان می‌رفت و مقرری‌های کلانی برای آن‌ها گذاشته بود.»[۲۰] رازی در کتابی به نام صفات بیمارستان این عقیده را ابراز می‌دارد که هر کس لایق طبابت نیست و طبیب باید دارای صفات و مشخصه‌های ویژه‌ای باشد.[۲۱] رازی درباره جاهل عالم‌نما افشاگری‌های متعددی صورت داده‌است و با افراد کم‌سواد که خود را طبیب می‌نامیدند و اطرافیان بیمار که در طبابت دخالت می‌کردند به شدت مخالفت می‌کرد و به همین سبب مخالفانی داشت.*[۲۲]

استادان و شاگردان[ویرایش]

مقاله اصلی فهرست شاگردان محمد زکریای رازی

درباره استادان و پیش‌کسوت‌های رازی میان کارشناسان و تاریخ‌نویسان اتفاق نظر وجود ندارد. گروهی او را شاگرد علی بن ربن طبری و ابوزید بلخی می‌دانند اما عده‌ای دیگر بنا بر شواهد و دلایلی این موضوع را رد می‌کنند. ناصرخسرو در زادالمسافرین صفحهٔ ۹۸ از شخصی به نام ایرانشهری به‌عنوان «استاد و مقدم» محمد زکریا نام می‌برد اما هیچ نشانی از این شخص به‌دست نیامده‌است. از این نام‌ها به عنوان شاگردان رازی یاد شده‌است: یحیی بن عدی، ابوالقاسم مقانعی، ابن قارن رازی، ابوغانم طبیب، یوسف بن یعقوب، محمد بن یونس و ابوالحسن طبری.

آثار رازی[ویرایش]

مقاله اصلی: فهرست آثار محمد زکریای رازی

در مورد آثار رازی در لغت‌نامهٔ دهخدا آمده‌است:ابن‌الندیم در کتاب «الفهرست» خود تعداد آثار رازی را یک‌صد و شصت و هفت و ابوریحان بیرونی در کتاب فهرست کتب کتاب در ریاضیات و نجوم، ۷ کتاب در تفسیر و تلخیص و اختصار کتب فلسفی یا طبی دیگران، ۱۷ کتاب در علوم فلسفی و تخمینی، ۶ کتاب در در مافوق الطبیعه، ۱۴ کتاب در الهیات، ۲۲ کتاب در کیمیا، ۲ کتاب در کفریات، ۱۰ کتاب در فنون مختلف که جمعاً بالغ بر یک‌صد و هشتاد و چهار مجلد می‌شود و ابن اصیبعه در عیون الانباء فی طبقات الاطباء دویست و سی و هشت کتاب از برای رازی برمی‌شمارد.[۲۳] محمود نجم‌آبادی استاد دانشگاه تهران کتابی به عنوان: مولفات و مصنفات ابوبکر محمدبن زکریای رازی نوشته است. که در سال ۱۳۳۹ به‌وسیله انتشارات دانشگاه تهران چاپ شده است در این کتاب فهرست‌های ارائه شده توسط ابن الندیم و ابوریحان بیرونی و قفطی و ابن اصیبعه با یک‌دیگر تطبیق داده شده‌است و در مجموع دویست و هفتاد و یک کتاب و رساله و مقاله فهرست شده‌است.

الحاویالکناش المنصوریالمرشدمن لایحضره الطبیبکتاب الجدری و الحصبهدفع مضار الاغذیهالابدال و ...

پزشکی[ویرایش]

رازی طبیبی حاذق و پزشکی عالی‌قدر بود و در زمان خود شهرت به‌سزایی داشت. رازی از زمرهٔ پزشکانی است که بعضی از عقاید وی در درمان طب امروزی نیز به‌کار می‌رود، مخصوصاً در درمان بیماران با مایعات و غذا. پزشکان و محققین از کتاب‌ها و رسالات رازی در سده‌های متمادی بهره‌ها برده‌اند. ابن‌سینا رازی را در طب بسیار عالی‌مقام می‌داند و می‌توان گفت برای تالیف قانون از الحاوی رازی استفاده فراوان کرده است.

رازی و بیمارستان

ابن خلکان، کاستیلیونی و ... از رازی به عنوان سر دسته پزشکان عملی و کلینیسین نامبرده‌اند[۲۴].

رازی و آزمایش‌های پزشکی

می‌توان گفت که رازی جزو اولین پزشکانی است که تجربه و آزمایش وارد علم طب کرده است[۲۵].

استحالات شیمیایی به عنوان دارو

چنانکه می‌دانیم رازی قبل از طب به کیمیا مشغول بود و اطلاعات زیادی درباره مواد داشته است. او اولین کسی است که استحالات شیمیایی را وارد طب کرده است[۲۶].

آبله و سرخک[ویرایش]

رازی اولین کسی است که تشخیص تفکیکی بین آبله و سرخک را بیان داشته‌است. وی در کتاب آبله و سرخک خود به علت بروز آبله پرداخته و سبب انتقال آن را عامل مخمر از راه خون دانسته‌است و ضمن معرفی آبله و سرخک به‌عنوان بیماری‌های حاد، نشانه‌هایی از بی‌خطر یا کشنده بودن آن‌ها را بیان می‌دارد و برای مراقبت از بیمار مبتلا به این بیماری‌ها روش‌هایی را توصیه می‌کند از جمله به عنوان اولین طبیب استفاده از پنبه را در طب آورده و به منظور زخم نشدن بدن بیماران آبله‌ای از آن بهره می‌برده و در مراقبت از چشم‌ها و پلک و گلو و بینی این بیماران توصیه فراوان کرده‌است. در کتاب آبله و سرخک رازی در مورد آبله و سرخک چه قبل از ظهور بیماری و چه بعد از آن و جلوگیری از عوارض بیماری به اندام‌های بدن تدابیری آورده شده‌است.

درمان بیماری‌های داخلی[ویرایش]

رازی اسراف در دارو را بسیار مضر می‌داند، وی معتقد بوده‌است تا ممکن است مداوا با غذا و در غیر این‌صورت با داروی منفرد و ساده وگرنه با داروی مرکب به عمل آید. رازی می‌گوید: «هرگاه طبیب موفق شود بیماری‌ها را با غذا درمان کند، به سعادت رسیده‌است.»[۲۷]

رازی درحال دیدن قاروره (نمونه ادرار بیمار)

وی بسیاری از داروها را روی حیوانات امتحان کرده و اثرات آن‌ها را ثبت و تشریح کرده‌است و سپس برای بیماران تجویز می‌کرده‌است.

جراحی[ویرایش]

اگرچه رازی به عنوان پزشک مشهور است اما بعضی از مورخان او را به نام «جراح» می‌شناسند. از مطالعهٔ آثار وی چنین برمی‌آید که در جراحی صاحب‌نظر بوده‌است. وی درباره «سنگ کلیه‌ها و مثانه» کتابی نوشته و درآن تاکید کرده‌است در صورتی که درمان سنگ مثانه با راه‌های طبی مقدور نباشد، باید به عمل جراحی پرداخت و در این کتاب از اسبابی که با آن عمل سنگ مثانه را انجام می‌داده، نام می‌برد. رازی اولین طبیبی یا (پزشکی) است که در عالم طب از سل مفصلی انگشتان صحبت کرده‌است. در شکسته‌بندی و دررفتگی‌ها قدم‌هایی برداشته و آثاری از خود به جا گذاشته‌است.

تغذیه[ویرایش]

رازی از اولین افرادی است که بر نقش خوراک در تندرستی و درمان پافشاری بسیار دارد. رازی کتابی درباره خوراک دارد به نام «منافع‌الاغذیه و مضارها» که یک دوره کامل بهداشت خوراک است و در آن از خواص گندم و سایر حبوبات و خواص و ضررهای انواع آب‌ها و شراب‌ها و مشروبات غیرالکلی و گوشت‌های تازه و خشک و ماهی‌ها و… سخن گفته‌است و فصلی در باب علل و جهات اشتها و هضم غذا و ورزش و غذاهای گوارا و پرهیزهای غذایی و مسمومیت‌ها دارد.

شیمی و داروسازی[ویرایش]

Colofón-Libro de Medicina de Razi.jpg

رازی تحصیل شیمی را پیش از پزشکی شروع کرده‌است و در آن آثاری چشم‌گیر از خود برجا گذاشته‌است. عمدهٔ تأثیر رازی در شیمی طبقه‌بندی او از مواد است. او نخستین کسی بود که اجسام را به سه گروه جمادی، نباتی و حیوانی تقسیم کرد. وی پایه‌گذار شیمی نوین است؛ با وجود آن‌که کیمیاگری را باور دارد. «هر چند که بعضی از کیمیاگران معاصر در ایران نوعی از تبدل ناقص فلزات را به طلا «تبدل رازی» می‌نامند. ولی چون رازی از دیدگاه مراحل بعدی علم در نظر گرفته شود، باید او را یکی از بنیان‌گذاران علم شیمی بدانیم.»[۲۸] در کتاب «سرّ الاسرار» او می‌خوانیم که مواد را به دو دسته فلز و شبه فلز (به گفته او جسد و روح) تقسیم می‌کند و اگر در این زمینه اشتباهاتی می‌کند، چندان گریزی از آن ندارد. برای نمونه جیوه را شبه‌فلز می‌خواند در صورتی که فلز بودن جیوه اکنون آشکار است.

کشف‌های بسیار به رازی نسبت داده می‌شود از جمله:

  • رازی کاشف الکل است.
  • از تأثیر محیط قلیایی بر کانه پیلیت، اسید سولفوریک فراهم کرد و با داشتن اسید سولفوریک بدست آوردن دیگر اسیدها آسان بود
  • از تأثیر آب‌آهک بر نوشادور (کلرید آمونیوم)، اسید کلریدریک بدست آورد.
  • با اثر دادن سرکه با مس، استات مس یا زنگار تهیه کرد که با آن‌ها را زخم را شستشو می‌دادند
  • از سوزاندن زرنیخ، اکسید آرسنیک یا مرگ موش فراهم کرد
  • برای نخستین بار از نارنج اسید سیتریک تهیه کرد.
  • او نخستین پزشکی است که داروهای سمی آلکالوئیدی ساخت و از آن‌ها برای درمان بیمارانش بهره گرفت.

دین[ویرایش]

تصویری از رازی

رازی کتب زیر را در مورد دین نگاشته است:

  • فی ان للانسان خالقا متقنا حکیما[۲۹] که در آن می گوید انسان قطعاً خالق حکیمی داشته است.
  • رساله ی " الی علی بن شهید البلخی فی تثبیت المعاد "[۳۰]. همچنان که از نام کتاب پیداست و "ابن ابی اصیبعه" نیز می گوید، کتاب در نقد نظریه منکران معاد است.
  • " فی ان النفس لیس بجسم " [۳۱] در مورد جدا بودن روح از جسم.
  • "النقض علی الکیال فی الامامة" [۳۲]
  • "کتاب الامام والمأموم المحقین" [۳۳]

او همچنین کتب زیر را در زمینه ی امامت نگاشته است:

  • فی آثار الامام الفاضل المعصوم [۳۴]

فلسفه[ویرایش]

رازی از تفکرات فلسفی رایج عصر خود که فلسفه ارسطویی- افلاطونی بود، پیروی نمی‌کرد و عقاید خاص خود را داشت که در نتیجه مورد بدگویی اهل فلسفه هم‌عصر و پس از خود قرار گرفت. رازی را می‌توان برجسته‌ترین چهره خردگرایی و تجربه‌گرایی در فرهنگ ایرانی و اسلامی نامید. وی در فلسفه به سقراط و افلاطون متمایل بود و تأثیراتی از افکار هندی و مانوی در فلسفه وی به چشم می‌خورد. با این وجود هرگز تسلیم افکار مشاهیر نمی‌شد بلکه اطلاعاتی را که از پیشینیان بدست آورده بود مورد مشاهده و تجربه قرار می‌داد و سپس نظر و قضاوت خود را بیان می‌دارد و این را حق خود می‌داند که نظرات دیگران را تغییر دهد و یا تکمیل کند.

از آراء رازی اطلاع دقیقی در دست نیست جز در مواردی که در نوشته‌های مخالفان آمده‌است. در نظر رازی جهان جایگاه شر و رنج است اما تنها راه نجات، عقل و فلسفه‌است و روان‌ها از تیرگی این عالم پاک نمی‌شود و نفس‌ها از این رنج رها نمی‌شوند مگر از طریق فلسفه... در فلسفه اخلاق رازی مساله لذت و رنج اهمیت زیادی دارد. از دید وی لذت امری وجودی نیست، یعنی راحتی از رنج است و رنج یعنی خروج از حالت طبیعی به‌وسیله امری اثرگذار و اگر امری ضد آن تأثیر کند و سبب خلاص شدن از رنج و بازگشت به حالت طبیعی شود، ایجاد لذت می‌کند. رازی فلسفه را چنین تعریف می‌کند که چون «فلسفه تشبه به خداوند عزوجل است به قدر طاقت انسانی» و چون آفریدگار بزرگ در نهایت علم و عدل و رحمت است پس نزدیکترین کسان به خالق، داناترین و عادل‌ترین و رحیم‌ترین ایشان است.

ویژگی رازی در این بود که بنای فلسفه‌اش را نه بر مبنای دو فرهنگ مسلط یونانی و اسلامی، که بر مبنای فلسفه ایرانی و بابلی و هندی پایه گذاری کرده بود. مهم‌ترین سؤال فلسفی او این بود: «اگر خداوند خالق جهان است، چرا پیش از خلق جهان جهان را خلق نکرد؟»[۳۵]

در ماوراءالطبیعه رازی پنج اصل وجود دارند که قدیم هستند و همین موجب شد که مسلمانان او را «دهری» بدانند: خالق، نفس کلی، هیولی اولی (ماده اولیه)، مکان مطلق، و زمان مطلق یا دهر.[۳۶]

گفتارهایی از رازی[ویرایش]

جستجو در ویکی‌گفتاورد مجموعه‌ای از گفتاوردهای مربوط به زکریای رازی در ویکی‌گفتاورد موجود است.
  • «ادیان و مذاهب علت اساسی جنگ‌ها و مخالفت با اندیشه‌های فلسفی و تحقیقات علمی هستند. کتاب‌هایی که به نام مقدس آسمانی معروف‌اند، کتب خالی از ارزش و اعتباراند و آثار کسانی از قدما مانند افلاطون و ارسطو و سقراط خدمت مهم‌تر و مفیدتری به بشر کرده است.»
  • «تجربه بهتر از علم طب است.»

درباره ی رازی[ویرایش]

زکریای رازی (نمایش‌نامه)، عبدالحی شماسی، نشر قطره، ۱۳۸۵، شابک: 0-627-341-964-978:ISBN.

همچنین مطالب این بخش براساس منابع و ماخذ کتاب‌های «محمد زکریای رازی»[۳۷] و «حکیم رازی»[۳۸] تنظیم شده‌است.

فارسی[ویرایش]

  • الفهرست، ابن‌الندیم، تهران، ۱۳۵۰.
  • ایران بعد از اسلام، عباس خلیلی، جلد۱و۲، تهران، ۱۳۳۵.
  • تاریخ علوم عقلی در تمدن اسلامی، تا اواسط قرن پنجم هجری، دکتر ذبیح‌الله صفا، انتشارات دانشگاه تهران، ۱۳۳۶.
  • فرهنگ نفیسی، دکتر ناظم‌الاطباء، پنج جلد، تهران، ۱۳۴۳.
  • فیلسوف ری، دکتر مهدی محقق، تهران، ۱۳۵۰.
  • یک نابغه بزرگ ایرانی (رازی طبیب ایرانی)، دکتر محمود نجم آبادی، ۱۳۴۱.
  • اساطیر ایرانی، مهرداد بهار، تهران، بنیاد فرهنگ، ۱۳۵۲.
  • ری باستان، حسین کریمان، دو جلد، انجمن آثار ملی،.۱۳۴۶
  • مولفات و مصنفات رازی، محمود نجم آبادی، دانشگاه تهران، ۱۳۳۹.
  • ترجمه تاریخ علم، جرج سارتن، احمد آرام، تهران، ۱۳۳۶.
  • ترجمه میراث ایران، به قلم سیزده تن از خاورشناسان، تهران، ۱۳۶۳.
  • میراث باستانی ایران، ریچارد فرای، ترجمه مسعود رجب‌نیا، تهران، ۱۳۴۴.
  • الانبیه عن حقایق الادویه، موفق‌الدین ابومنصور علی‌الهروی، ترجمه توسط عبدالخالق آخوندوف بادکوبه‌ای – انتشارات بنیاد فرهنگ ایران.
  • تاریخ ادبیات ایران، انگلیسی، پروفسور ادوارد براون، ترجمه رشید یاسمی، تهران ۱۳۱۶
  • حکیم رازی، پرویز اذکایی، تهران، ۱۳۸۲.

عربی[ویرایش]

  • فهرست کتب محمد بن زکریای رازی، ابوریحان بیرونی، به کوشش پاول کراس، پاریس، ۱۹۳۶ میلادی.
  • تاریخ آداب اللغة العربیة، جرجی زیدان، پنج جلد، مصر ۱۹۱۲ میلادی.
  • تاریخ تمدن اسلام، جرجی زیدان، ترجمه علی جواهر کلام، تهران، ۱۳۳۶.
  • تاریخ البیمارستانات فی الإسلام، دکتر احمد عیسی بیک، دمشق، ۱۳۳۷.

زبان‌های اروپایی[ویرایش]

  • پزشکان بزرگ، انگلیسی، (به انگلیسی: The great Doctors)، هنری ا. سیجریست (به انگلیسی: Henry E. Sigeristنیویورک،۱۹۵۸ میلادی
  • تاریخ طب، انگلیسی، (به انگلیسی: History of Medicine)، دکتر راف. ه. میجر (به انگلیسی: Ralph H. Major)، ۱۹۵۴ میلادی.
  • تاریخ طب در ایران، انگلیسی، (به انگلیسی: A Medicine History of Persia)، دکتر سیریل الگود (به انگلیسی: Dr. C. Elgoodکمبریج (انگلستان)، ۱۹۵۱ میلادی.
  • زندگی و کارهای رازی، انگلیسی، (به انگلیسی: Life and work of Rhazes)، س. ا. رنکینکس انگلیسی، (به انگلیسی: S.A. Rankings)لندن، ۱۹۱۳ میلادی.
  • تاریخ طب و داروسازی و دندانپزشکی و دامپزشکی، فرانسوی، (به فرانسوی: Histoire générale de la médicine et de la pharmacie et de I'art dentaire et de I'art vétérinaire))، با شرکت عده‌ای از دانشمندان تاریخ طب به سرپرستی پروفسور لینیل لاواستین (به انگلیسی: Prof. Laignel Lavastine)، سه جلد، پاریس، ۱۹۳۶ میلادی.
  • اطباء مشهور، فرانسوی، رنه دومینان (به فرانسوی: Réné Dumenilژنو، ۱۹۷۴ میلادی.
  • تاریخ ادبیات عرب، آلمانی،[نیازمند ابهام‌زدایی] (به آلمانی: Geschichte der Arabichen Litteratur)، کارل برکلمان (به آلمانی: Karl Brockelman)، لیدن (هلند)، ۱۹۳۷ میلادی.
  • تاریخ اطباء و علماء علوم طبیعی، آلمانی، (به آلمانی: Geschichtte der Arabichen Aerzte und Naturforscher)، فردینالدو وستنفلد، گوتینگن (آلمان)، ۱۸۹۰ میلادی.

پانویس[ویرایش]

  1. ۲۵۱ ه.ق برابر با ۲۴۴ خورشیدی و ۸۶۵ - ۳۱۳ ه.ق. برابر با ۳۰۴ خورشیدی، ۹۲۵
  2. محمود نجم‌آبادی، ص ۶.
  3. *برابر با ۱۵ اکتبر ۹۲۵
  4. : مروري بر فلسفه رازي :
  5. کربن، هانری. «نقد آراء محمد زکریای رازی در جامع الحکمتین ناصر خسرو». معارف، ش. ۶۹ (۱۳۸۸): ۱۵۲. 
  6. امانی، میثم. «نبوت در نگرش محمد بن زکریای رازی». اطلاعات حکمت و معرفت (ااطلاعات)، ش. ۱۱ (بهمن ۱۳۸۶): ۷۱. 
  7. تاریخ فلسفه اسلامی – هنری کوربن – ص ۱۶۲
  8. معارف اسلامی در جهان اسلام – سیدحسین نصر – ص ۲۳
  9. وب‌گاه فلاسفه، کیاوش ماسالی
  10. اقوال گوناگون در خصوص عقاید فلسفی و دینی زکریای رازی
  11. وب‌گاه فلاسفه، کیاوش ماسالی
  12. اقوال گوناگون در خصوص عقاید فلسفی و دینی زکریای رازی
  13. Jennifer Michael Hecht, "Doubt: A History: The Great Doubters and Their Legacy of Innovation from Socrates and Jesus to Thomas Jefferson and Emily Dickinson", pg. 227-230
  14. احمد بیرشک، ۴۶۳
  15. اقوال گوناگون در خصوص عقاید فلسفی و دینی زکریای رازی
  16. ریحانه الادب، محمد علی مدرس، ج ۷، ص ۲۸
  17. راز بزرگ رسالت ص ۸۸-۸۹
  18. عیون الانباءج 2 صفحه 352
  19. محمود نجم‌آبادی، ص ۲.
  20. ابن الندیم،۵۳۱
  21. محمود نجم‌آبادی، ص ۳۵.
  22. *نقل قول: «فی العلة التی لها ینجح جهال الاطباء والعوام والنساء اکثر من العلماء
  23. خطای یادکرد: خطای یادکرد:برچسب <ref>‎ غیرمجاز؛ متنی برای یادکردهای با نام autogenerated1 وارد نشده‌است.
  24. نجم‌آبادی، قصص و حکایات المرضی، ۱۶مقدمه.
  25. نجم‌آبادی، قصص و حکایات المرضی، ۱۶مقدمه.
  26. کامپل، طب عرب و نفوذش در قرون وسطی.
  27. محمود نجم‌آبادی، ۱۶۲
  28. احمد آرام، ص ۲۰۸.
  29. عیون الانباءج 2 صفحه 352
  30. عیون الانباءج 2 صفحه 359
  31. عیون الانباءج 3 صفحه 358
  32. عیون الانباءج 2 صفحه 358 - 359
  33. عیون الانباءج 2 صفحه 358 - 359
  34. عیون الانباءج 2 صفحه 359
  35. محمدرضا فشاهی، ارسطوی بغداد، از عقل یونانی به وحی قرآنی، انتشارات کاروان، ۱۳۸۰، ص ۴۱.
  36. محمدرضا فشاهی، ارسطوی بغداد، از عقل یونانی به وحی قرآنی، انتشارات کاروان، ۱۳۸۰، ص ۴۱
  37. محمود نجم آبادی، ۲۶۰- ۲۴۵
  38. پرویز اذکائی، ۸۵۴- ۸۳۳

منابع[ویرایش]

منابع مکتوب
  • آسیموف، آیزاک. دائرةالمعارف دانشمندان علم و صنعت، جلد اول. ترجمهٔ محمود مصاحب. چاپ دوم. شرکت انتشارات علمی و فرهنگی، ۱۲۶۶. ۱۲۷. 
  • ابن الندیم، محمدبن اسحاق. الفهرست. ترجمهٔ محمدرضا تجدد. تهران: اساطیر، ۱۳۸۱. ISBN 964-331-118-X. 
  • دهخدا، علی‌اکبر. لغت‌نامه دهخدا، جلد۴۳ شماره مسلسل ۱۹۵. زیر نظر دکتر محمد معین. تهران: دانشگاه تهران، سازمان لغت‌نامه، ۱۳۳۴. ۵۷۷. 
  • «رازی، ابوبکر محمدبن زکریا». در خلاصهٔ زندگی‌نامهٔ علمی دانشمندان. ترجمهٔ محبوبین، صادق. زیر نظر احمد بیرشک. ویراستار فریبرز مجیدی. تهران: شرکت انتشارات علمی و فرهنگی، بنیاد دانشنامه بزرگ فارسی، ۱۳۷۴. ۴۶۳. ISBN 964-5515-01-7. 
  • «علوم کاربردی، کیمیا و دیگر علوم خفّیه». در علم در اسلام. احمد آرام. تهران: سروش، ۱۳۶۶. ۲۷۲. 
  • معین، محمد. فرهنگ‌نامه فارسی جلد پنجم. چاپ نهم. تهران: موسسه انتشارات امیرکبیر، ۱۳۷۵. ۵۷۰. شابک ‎۳-۰۱۶۴-۰۰-۹۶۴. 
  • نجم‌آبادی، محمود. محمد زکریای رازی. تهران: انتشارات دانشگاه رازی، ۲۵۳۵شاهنشاهی. 
  • نجم‌آبادی، محمود. قصص و حکایات المرضی. چاپ دوم. تهران: انتشارات دانشگاه تهران، ۲۵۳۶. ۱۶۴. 
  • کامپل. طب عرب و نفوذش در قرون وسطی. 
  • صدری،مصطفی صدر الدین. شرح حال رجال ومشاهیر ایران. تهران: شقایق، 1373 شمسی. 
منابع برخط

پیوند به بیرون[ویرایش]

جستجو در ویکی‌انبار در ویکی‌انبار پرونده‌هایی دربارهٔ زکریای رازی موجود است.
"Al-Razi" redirects here. For the Islamic theologian and philosopher, see Fakhr al-Din al-Razi. For other uses, see Razi (disambiguation).
Muhammad ibn Zakariyā Rāzī
Zakariya Razi 001.JPG
Born 854 CE [1]
Rey (near Tehran)[2]
Died 932 or 925 CE[2]
Rey
Era Medieval era
Region Rey, Baghdad
School Persian science, Islamic medicine
Main interests Chemistry, Medicine, Philosophy
Notable ideas The first to produce acids such as sulfuric acid, writing up limited or extensive notes on diseases such as smallpox and chickenpox, a pioneer in ophthalmology, author of first book on pediatrics, making leading contributions in inorganic and organic chemistry, also the author of several philosophical works.

Muhammad ibn Zakariyā Rāzī (Persian: محمد زکریای رازیMohammad-e Zakariā-ye Rāzi, also known by his Latinized name Rhazes or Rasis) (854 CE – 925 CE), was a Persian [3][4] polymath, physician, alchemist and chemist, philosopher and important figure in the history of medicine and as the discoverer of alcohol and vitriol (sulfuric acid) is well known.[5][6]

Being endowed by nature with a comprehensive mind, Razi made fundamental and enduring contributions to various fields of science, which he recorded in over 200 manuscripts, and is particularly remembered for numerous advances in medicine through own observations and discoveries.[7] An early proponent of experimental medicine, he became a successful doctor; was appointed a court physician, and served as chief physician of Baghdad and Rey hospitals.[2][8] He was among the first to use Humoralism to distinguish one contagious disease from another and has been described as doctor's doctor,[9] the father of pediatrics,[10] and a pioneer of ophthalmology.

As a practicing physician, Razi wrote a pioneering book about smallpox and measles providing clinical characterization of the diseases.[11] Through translation, his medical works and ideas became known among medieval European practitioners and profoundly influenced medical education in the Latin West.[2] Some volumes of his work Al-Mansuri, namely "On Surgery" and "A General Book on Therapy", became part of the medical curriculum in Western universities.[2] As a teacher of medicine, he attracted students of all backgrounds and interests and was said to be compassionate and devoted to the service of his patients, whether rich or poor.[12] Edward Granville Browne considers him as "probably the greatest and most original of all the physicians, and one of the most prolific as an author.[13]

Biography

Colophon of Razi's Book of Medicine.

Razi was born in the city of Rey situated on the Great Silk Road that for centuries facilitated trade and cultural exchanges between East and West.[14] His name Razi in Persian means "from the city of Rey", an ancient town called Ragha in old Persian or Ragâ in old Bactrian.[15] It is located on the southern slopes of the Alborz Range situated near Tehran, Iran.

In his youth, Razi moved to Baghdad where he studied and practiced at the local bimaristan (hospital). Later, he was invited back to Rey by Mansur ibn Ishaq, then the governor of Rey, and became a bimaristan's head.[2] He dedicated two books on medicine to al-Mansur, The Spirtual Physic and Al-Mansūrī on Medicine.[2][16][17][18] Because of his newly acquired popularity as physician, Razi was invited to Baghdad where he assumed the responsibilities of a director in a new hospital named after its founder al-Muʿtaḍid (d. 902 CE).[2]

He spent the last years of his life in his native Rey suffering from glaucoma. His eye affliction started with cataracts and ended in total blindness.[19] The cause of his blindness is uncertain. One account attributed the cause to a blow to his head by his patron, al-Mansour; while Abulfaraj and Casiri claimed that the cause was a diet of beans only.[20][21] Another source attributed the cause of his blindness to a beating presumably ordered by a mullah who was offended by his work, al-Hawi; currently, Razi is described by scholars as an "outspoken deist" and a "full-time freethinker".[22][23] The beating was administered with the manuscript of the work.[24] Allegedly, he was approached by a physician offering an ointment to cure his blindness. Al-Razi then asked him how many layers does the eye contain and when he was unable to receive an answer, he declined the treatment stating "my eyes will not be treated by one who does not know the basics of its anatomy".[25]

The lectures of Razi attracted many students. As Ibn al-Nadim relates in Fihrist, Razi was considered a shaikh, an honorary title given to one entitled to teach and surrounded by several circles of students. When someone raised a question, it was passed on to students of the 'first circle'; if they did not know the answer, it was passed on to those of the 'second circle', and so on. When all students would fail to answer, Razi himself would consider the query. Razi was a generous person by nature, with a considerate attitude towards his patients. He was charitable to the poor, treated them without payment in any form, and wrote for them a treatise Man la yahdurub al-tabib, or Who has no Physician to Attend Him, with medical advises.[26] One former pupil from Tabaristan came to look after him, but as al-Biruni wrote, Razi rewarded him for his intentions and sent back home, proclaiming that his final days were approaching.[27] According to Biruni, Razi died in Rey in 925 sixty years of age.[28] Biruni, who considered Razi as his mentor, among the first penned a short biography of Razi including a bibliography of his numerous works.[28]

After his death, his fame spread beyond the Middle East to Medieval Europe, and lived on. In an undated catalog of the library at Peterborough Abbey, most likely from the 14th century, Razi is listed as a part author of ten books on medicine.[29]

Contributions to medicine

Smallpox vs. measles

"Smallpox appears when blood 'boils' and is infected, resulting in vapours being expelled. Thus juvenile blood (which looks like wet extracts appearing on the skin) is being transformed into richer blood, having the color of mature wine. At this stage, smallpox shows up essentially as 'bubbles found in wine' - (as blisters) - ... this disease can also occur at other times - (meaning: not only during childhood) -. The best thing to do during this first stage is to keep away from it, otherwise this disease might turn into an epidemic."

This diagnosis is acknowledged by the Encyclopaedia Britannica (1911), which states: "The most trustworthy statements as to the early existence of the disease are found in an account by the 9th-century Persian physician Rhazes, by whom its symptoms were clearly described, its pathology explained by a humoral or fermentation theory, and directions given for its treatment."

Razi's book: al-Judari wa al-Hasbah (On Smallpox and Measles) was the first book describing smallpox and measles as distinct diseases.[citation needed] It was translated more than a dozen times into Latin and other European languages. Its lack of dogmatism and its Hippocratic reliance on clinical observation show Razi's medical methods. For example:

"The eruption of smallpox is preceded by a continued fever, pain in the back, itching in the nose and nightmares during sleep. These are the more acute symptoms of its approach together with a noticeable pain in the back accompanied by fever and an itching felt by the patient all over his body. A swelling of the face appears, which comes and goes, and one notices an overall inflammatory color noticeable as a strong redness on both cheeks and around both eyes. One experiences a heaviness of the whole body and great restlessness, which expresses itself as a lot of stretching and yawning. There is a pain in the throat and chest and one finds it difficult to breathe and cough. Additional symptoms are: dryness of breath, thick spittle, hoarseness of the voice, pain and heaviness of the head, restlessness, nausea and anxiety. (Note the difference: restlessness, nausea and anxiety occur more frequently with 'measles' than with smallpox. At the other hand, pain in the back is more apparent with smallpox than with measles). Altogether one experiences heat over the whole body, one has an inflamed colon and one shows an overall shining redness, with a very pronounced redness of the gums."[citation needed]

Pharmacy

Razi contributed in many ways to the early practice of pharmacy by compiling texts, in which he introduces the use of 'mercurial ointments' and his development of apparatus such as mortars, flasks, spatulas and phials, which were used in pharmacies until the early twentieth century.

Ethics of medicine

On a professional level, Razi introduced many practical, progressive, medical and psychological ideas. He attacked charlatans and fake doctors who roamed the cities and countryside selling their nostrums and "cures". At the same time, he warned that even highly educated doctors did not have the answers to all medical problems and could not cure all sicknesses or heal every disease, which was humanly speaking impossible. To become more useful in their services and truer to their calling, Razi advised practitioners to keep up with advanced knowledge by continually studying medical books and exposing themselves to new information. He made a distinction between curable and incurable diseases. Pertaining to the latter, he commented that in the case of advanced cases of cancer and leprosy the physician should not be blamed when he could not cure them. To add a humorous note, Razi felt great pity for physicians who took care for the well being of princes, nobility, and women, because they did not obey the doctor's orders to restrict their diet or get medical treatment, thus making it most difficult being their physician.

He also wrote the following on medical ethics:

"The doctor's aim is to do good, even to our enemies, so much more to our friends, and my profession forbids us to do harm to our kindred, as it is instituted for the benefit and welfare of the human race, and God imposed on physicians the oath not to compose mortiferous remedies."[30]

Books and articles on medicine

The Virtuous Life (al-Hawi الحاوي).
This monumental medical encyclopedia in nine volumes — known in Europe also as The Large Comprehensive or Continens Liber (جامع الكبير) — contains considerations and criticism on the Greek philosophers Aristotle and Plato, and expresses innovative views on many subjects.[31][32][33] Because of this book alone, many scholars consider Razi the greatest medical doctor of the Middle Ages.
The al-Hawi is not a formal medical encyclopedia, but a posthumous compilation of Razi's working notebooks, which included knowledge gathered from other books as well as original observations on diseases and therapies, based on his own clinical experience. It is significant since it contains a celebrated monograph on smallpox, the earliest one known. It was translated into Latin in 1279 by Faraj ben Salim, a physician of Sicilian-Jewish origin employed by Charles of Anjou, and after which it had a considerable influence in Europe.
The al-Hawi also criticized the views of Galen, after Razi had observed many clinical cases which did not follow Galen's descriptions of fevers. For example, he stated that Galen's descriptions of urinary ailments were inaccurate as he had only seen three cases, while Razi had studied hundreds of such cases in hospitals of Baghdad and Rey.[34]
A medical adviser for the general public (Man la Yahduruhu Al-Tabib) (من لا يحضره الطبيب)
Razi was possibly the first Persian doctor to deliberately write a home medical manual (remedial) directed at the general public. He dedicated it to the poor, the traveler, and the ordinary citizen who could consult it for treatment of common ailments when a doctor was not available. This book, of course, is of special interest to the history of pharmacy since similar books were very popular until the 20th century. Razi described in its 36 chapters, diets and drug components that can be found in either an apothecary, a market place, in well-equipped kitchens, or and in military camps. Thus, every intelligent person could follow its instructions and prepare the proper recipes with good results.
Some of the illnesses treated were headaches, colds, coughing, melancholy and diseases of the eye, ear, and stomach. For example, he prescribed for a feverish headache: " 2 parts of duhn (oily extract) of rose, to be mixed with 1 part of vinegar, in which a piece of linen cloth is dipped and compressed on the forehead". He recommended as a laxative, " 7 drams of dried violet flowers with 20 pears, macerated and well mixed, then strained. Add to this filtrate, 20 drams of sugar for a drink. In cases of melancholy, he invariably recommended prescriptions, which included either poppies or its juice (opium), Cuscuta epithymum (clover dodder) or both. For an eye-remedy, he advised myrrh, saffron, and frankincense, 2 drams each, to be mixed with 1 dram of yellow arsenic formed into tablets. Each tablet was to be dissolved in a sufficient quantity of coriander water and used as eye drops.
Doubts About Galen (Shukuk 'ala alinusor)
In his book Doubts about Galen, Razi rejects several claims made by the Greek physician, as far as the alleged superiority of the Greek language and many of his cosmological and medical views. He links medicine with philosophy, and states that sound practice demands independent thinking. He reports that Galen's descriptions do not agree with his own clinical observations regarding the run of a fever. And in some cases he finds that his clinical experience exceeds Galen's.
He criticized moreover Galen's theory that the body possessed four separate "humors" (liquid substances), whose balance are the key to health and a natural body-temperature. A sure way to upset such a system was to insert a liquid with a different temperature into the body resulting in an increase or decrease of bodily heat, which resembled the temperature of that particular fluid. Razi noted that a warm drink would heat up the body to a degree much higher than its own natural temperature. Thus the drink would trigger a response from the body, rather than transferring only its own warmth or coldness to it. (Cf. I. E. Goodman)
This line of criticism essentially had the potentiality to destroy completely Galen's Theory of Humours including Aristotle's theory of the Four Elements, on which it was grounded. Razi's own alchemical experiments suggested other qualities of matter, such as "oiliness" and "sulphurousness", or inflammability and salinity, which were not readily explained by the traditional fire, water, earth, and air division of elements.
Razi's challenge to the current fundamentals of medical theory were quite controversial. Many accused him of ignorance and arrogance, even though he repeatedly expressed his praise and gratitude to Galen for his contributions and labors, saying:
"I prayed to God to direct and lead me to the truth in writing this book. It grieves me to oppose and criticize the man Galen from whose sea of knowledge I have drawn much. Indeed, he is the Master and I am the disciple. Although this reverence and appreciation will and should not prevent me from doubting, as I did, what is erroneous in his theories. I imagine and feel deeply in my heart that Galen has chosen me to undertake this task, and if he were alive, he would have congratulated me on what I am doing. I say this because Galen's aim was to seek and find the truth and bring light out of darkness. I wish indeed he were alive to read what I have published."
Crystallization of ancient knowledge, and the refusal to accept the fact that new data and ideas indicate that present day knowledge ultimately might surpass that of previous generations.
Razi believed that contemporary scientists and scholars are by far better equipped, more knowledgeable, and more competent than the ancient ones, due to the accumulated knowledge at their disposal. Razi's attempt to overthrow blind acceptance of the unchallenged authority of ancient sages encouraged and stimulated research and advances in the arts, technology, and sciences.
The Diseases of Children
Razi's The Diseases of Children was the first book to deal with pediatrics as an independent field of medicine.[10]
Mental health
As many other theorists in his time of exploration of illnesses he believed that mental illnesses were caused by demons. Demons were believed to enter the body and possess the body.

Books on medicine

This is a partial list of Razi's books and articles in medicine, according to Ibn Abi Usaybi'ah. Some books may have been copied or printed under different names.

  • al-Hawi (الحاوي), al-Hawi al-Kabir (الحاوي الكبير). Also known as The Virtuous Life, Continens Liber. The large medical Encyclopedia containing mostly recipes and Razi's notebooks.
  • Isbateh Elmeh Pezeshki (Persian اثبات علم پزشكى), ("Proving the Science of Medicine").
  • Dar Amadi bar Elmh Pezeshki (Persian درآمدى بر علم پزشكى) ("Outcome of the Science of Medicine").
  • Rade Manaategha 'tibb jahez
  • Rade Naghzotibbeh Nashi
  • The Experimentation of Medical Science and its Application
  • Guidance
  • Kenash
  • The Classification of Diseases
  • Royal Medicine
  • For One Without a Doctor (من لايحضره الطبيب)
  • The Book of Simple Medicine
  • The Great Book of Krabadin
  • The Little Book of Krabadin
  • The Book of Taj or The Book of the Crown
  • The Book of Disasters
  • Food and its Harmfulness
  • al-Judari wa al-Hasbah, Translation: A treatise on the Small-pox and Measles[35]
  • Ketab dar Padid Amadaneh Sangrizeh (‍Persian كتاب در پديدآمدن سنگريزه) ("The Book of Formation of small stones (Stones in the Kidney and Bladder)")
  • Ketabeh Dardeh Roodeha (Persian كتاب درد روده‌ها) ("The Book of Pains in the Intestine")
  • Ketab dar Dard Paay va Dardeh Peyvandhayyeh Andam (Persian كتاب در درد پاى و درد پيوندهاى اندام) ("The Book of Pains in Feet/Legs and Pains in Linked Limbs")
  • Ketab dar Falej
  • The Book of Tooth Aches
  • Dar Hey'ateh Kabed ‍(Persian در هيأت كبد) ("About the Liver")
  • Dar Hey'ateh Ghalb (About Heart Ache) ‍(Persian در هيأت قلب) ("About the Heart")
  • About the Nature of Doctors
  • About the Earwhole
  • Dar Rag Zadan (Persian در رگ زدن) ("About Handling Vessels")
  • Seydeh neh/sidneh
  • Ketabeh Ibdal
  • Food For Patients
  • Soodhayeh Serkangabin (Persian سودهاى سركنگبين) or Benefits of Honey and Vinegar Mixture
  • Darmanhayeh Abneh
  • The Book of Surgical Instruments
  • The Book on Oil
  • Fruits Before and After Lunch
  • Book on Medical Discussion (with Jarir Tabib)
  • Book on Medical Discussion II (with Abu Feiz)
  • About the Menstrual Cycle
  • Ghi Kardan or vomiting (Persian قى كردن)
  • Snow and Medicine
  • Snow and Thirst
  • The Foot
  • Fatal Diseases
  • About Poisoning
  • Hunger
  • Soil in Medicine
  • The Thirst of Fish
  • Sleep Sweating
  • Warmth in Clothing
  • Spring and Disease
  • Misconceptions of a Doctors Capabilities
  • The Social Role of Doctors

Translations

Razi's notable books and articles on medicine (in English) include:

  • Mofid al Khavas, The Book for the Elite.
  • The Book of Experiences
  • The Cause of the Death of Most Animals because of Poisonous Winds
  • The Physicians' Experiments
  • The Person Who Has No Access to Physicians
  • The Big Pharmacology
  • The Small Pharmacology
  • Gout
  • Al Shakook ala Jalinoos, The Doubt on Galen
  • Kidney and Bladder Stones
  • Ketab tibb ar-Ruhani,The Spiritual Physik of Rhazes.

Alchemy

Muhammad ibn Zakariya ar-Razi (Rhazes) isolated many chemical substances, produced many medications, and described many laboratory apparatus.

The Transmutation of Metals

Razi's interest in alchemy and his strong belief in the possibility of transmutation of lesser metals to silver and gold was attested half a century after his death by Ibn an-Nadim's book (The Philosophers Stone-Lapis Philosophorum in Latin). Nadim attributed a series of twelve books to Razi, plus an additional seven, including his refutation to al-Kindi's denial of the validity of alchemy. Al-Kindi (801-873 CE) had been appointed by the Abbasid Caliph Ma'mum founder of Baghdad, to 'the House of Wisdom' in that city, he was a philosopher and an opponent of alchemy.
Finally we will mention Razi's two best-known alchemical texts, which largely superseded his earlier ones: al-Asrar (الاسرار "The Secrets"), and Sirr al-Asrar (سر الاسرار "The Secret of Secrets"), which incorporates much of the previous work.

Apparently Razi's contemporaries believed that he had obtained the secret of turning iron and copper into gold. Biographer Khosro Moetazed reports in Mohammad Zakaria Razi that a certain General Simjur confronted Razi in public, and asked whether that was the underlying reason for his willingness to treat patients without a fee. "It appeared to those present that Razi was reluctant to answer; he looked sideways at the general and replied":

"I understand alchemy and I have been working on the characteristic properties of metals for an extended time. However, it still has not turned out to be evident to me, how one can transmute gold from copper. Despite the research from the ancient scientists done over the past centuries, there has been no answer. I very much doubt if it is possible..."

According to one legend he could have been blinded by steaming vapors during an accident in one of his experiments. He managed to escape with no injuries.[36][verification needed]

Chemical instruments and substances

Razi developed several chemical instruments that remain in use to this day. He is known to have perfected methods of distillation and extraction. ar-Razi dismissed the idea of potions and dispensed with magic, meaning the reliance on symbols as causes. Although Razi does not reject the idea that miracles exist, in the sense of unexplained phenomena in nature, his alchemical stockroom was enriched with products of Persian mining and manufacturing, even with sal ammoniac, a Chinese discovery. He relied predominantly on the concept of 'dominant' forms or essences, which is the Neoplatonic conception of causality rather than an intellectual approach or a mechanical one).[citation needed] Razi's alchemy brings forward such empiric qualities as salinity and inflammability -the latter associated to 'oiliness' and 'sulphurousness'. These properties are not readily explained by the traditional composition of the elements such as: fire, water, earth and air, as al-óhazali and others after him were quick to note, influenced by critical thoughts such as Razi had.

Major works on alchemy

Razi's achievements are of exceptional importance in the history of chemistry, since in his books we find for the first time a systematic classification of carefully observed and verified facts regarding chemical substances, reactions and apparatus, described in a language almost entirely free from mysticism and ambiguity. Razi's scheme of classification of the substances used in chemistry shows sound research on his part.

  • The Secret (Al-Asrar)
This book was written in response to a request from Razi's close friend, colleague, and former student, Abu Mohammed b. Yunis of Bukhara, a Muslim mathematician, philosopher, a highly reputable natural scientist.
In his book Sirr al-Asrar, Razi divides the subject of "Matter' into three categories as he did in his previous book al-Asrar.
  1. Knowledge and identification of drug components of plant-, animal- and mineral-origin and the description of the best type of each for utilization in treatment.
  2. Knowledge of equipment and tools of interest to and used by either alchemist or apothecary.
  3. Knowledge of seven alchemical procedures and techniques: sublimation and condensation of mercury, precipitation of sulfur and arsenic calcination of minerals (gold, silver, copper, lead, and iron), salts, glass, talc, shells, and waxing.
This last category contains additionally a description of other methods and applications used in transmutation:
* The added mixture and use of solvent vehicles.
* The amount of heat (fire) used, 'bodies and stones', ('al-ajsad' and 'al-ahjar) that can or cannot be transmuted into corporal substances such of metals and Id salts ('al-amlah').
* The use of a liquid mordant which quickly and permanently colors lesser metals for more lucrative sale and profit.
Similar to the commentary on the 8th century text on amalgams ascribed to Al- Hayan (Jabir), Razi gives methods and procedures of coloring a silver object to imitate gold (gold leafing) and the reverse technique of removing its color back to silver. Gilding and silvering of other metals (alum, calcium salts, iron, copper, and tutty) are also described, as well as how colors will last for years without tarnishing or changing. Behind these procedures one does not find a deceptive motive rather a technical and economic deliberation. This becomes evident from the author's quotation of market prices and the expressed triumph of artisan, craftsman or alchemist declaring the results of their efforts "to make it look exactly like gold!". However, another motive was involved, namely, to manufacture something resembling gold to be sold quickly so to help a good friend who happened to be in need of money fast. Could it be Razi's alchemical technique of silvering and gilding metals which convinced many Muslim biographers that he was first a jeweler before he turned to the study of alchemy?
Of interest in the text is Razi's classification of minerals into six divisions, showing his discussion a modern chemical connotation:
  1. Four spirits (AL-ARWAH) : mercury, sal ammoniac, sulfur, and arsenic sulphide (orpiment and realgar).
  2. Seven bodies (AL-AJSAD) : silver, gold, copper, iron, black lead (plumbago), zinc (Kharsind), and tin.
  3. Thirteen stones : (AL-AHJAR) Pyrites marcasite (marqashita), magnesia, malachite, tutty Zinc oxide (tutiya), talcum, lapis lazuli, gypsum, azurite, magnesia, haematite (iron oxide), arsenic oxide, mica and asbestos and glass (then identified as made of sand and alkali of which the transparent crystal Damascene[disambiguation needed] is considered the best),
  4. Seven vitriols (AL-ZAJAT) : alum (al-shabb الشب), and white (qalqadis القلقديس), black, red (suri السوري), and yellow (qulqutar القلقطار) vitriols (the impure sulfates of iron, copper, etc.), green (qalqand القلقند).
  5. Seven borates : natron, and impure sodium borate.
  6. Eleven salts (AL-AMLAH): including brine, common (table) salt, ashes, naphtha, live lime, and urine, rock, and sea salts. Then he separately defines and describes each of these substances and their top choice, best colors and various adulterations.
Razi gives also a list of apparatus used in alchemy. This consists of 2 classes:
  1. Instruments used for the dissolving and melting of metals such as the Blacksmith's hearth, bellows, crucible, thongs (tongue or ladle), macerator, stirring rod, cutter, grinder (pestle), file, shears, descensory and semi-cylindrical iron mould.
  2. Utensils used to carry out the process of transmutation and various parts of the distilling apparatus: the retort, alembic, shallow iron pan, potters kiln and blowers, large oven, cylindrical stove, glass cups, flasks, phials, beakers, glass funnel, crucible, alundel, heating lamps, mortar, cauldron, hair-cloth, sand- and water-bath, sieve, flat stone mortar and chafing-dish.
  • Secret of Secrets (Sirr Al-asrar)
This is Razi's most famous book which has gained a lot of recognition in the West. Here he gives systematic attention to basic chemical operations important to the history of pharmacy.

Books on alchemy

Here is a list of Razi's known books on alchemy, mostly in Persian:

  • Modkhele Taalimi
  • Elaleh Ma'aaden
  • Isbaate Sanaa'at
  • Ketabeh Sang
  • Ketabe Tadbir
  • Ketabe Aksir
  • Ketabe Sharafe Sanaa'at
  • Ketabe Tartib, Ketabe Rahat, The Simple Book
  • Ketabe Tadabir
  • Ketabe Shavahed
  • Ketabe Azmayeshe Zar va Sim (Experimentation on Gold)
  • Ketabe Serre Hakimaan
  • Ketabe Serr (The Book of Secrets)
  • Ketabe Serre Serr (The Secret of Secrets)
  • The First Book on Experiments
  • The Second Book on Experiments
  • Resaale'ei Be Faan
  • Arezooyeh Arezookhah
  • A letter to Vazir Ghasem ben Abidellah
  • Ketabe Tabvib

Philosophy

On existence

Razi is known to have been a free-thinking philosopher, since he was well-trained in ancient Greek science and philosophy although his approach to chemistry was rather naturalistic. Moreover, he was well versed in the theory of music, as so many other scientists of that time.

Metaphysics

His ideas on metaphysics were also based on the works of the ancient Greeks:

"The metaphysical doctrine of Razi, insofar as it can be reconstructed, derives from his concept of the five eternal principles[disambiguation needed]. God, for him, does not 'create' the world from nothing but rather arranges a universe out of pre-existing principles. His account of the soul features a mythic origin of the world in which God out of pity fashions a physical playground for the soul in response to its own desires; the soul, once fallen into the new realm God has made for it, requires God's further gift of intellect in order to find its way once more to salvation and freedom. In this scheme, intellect does not appear as a separate principle but is rather a later grace of God to the soul; the soul becomes intelligent, possessed of reason and therefore able to discern the relative value of the other four principles. Whereas the five principles are eternal, intellect as such is apparently not. Such a doctrine of intellect is sharply at odds with that of all of Razi's philosophical contemporaries, who are in general either adherents of some form of Neoplatonism or of Aristotelianism. The remaining three principles, space, matter and time, serve as the non-animate components of the natural world. Space is defined by the relationship between the individual particles of matter, or atoms, and the void that surrounds them. The greater the density of material atoms, the heavier and more solid the resulting object; conversely, the larger the portion of void, the lighter and less solid. Time and matter have both an absolute, unqualified form and a limited form. Thus there is an absolute matter - pure extent - that does not depend in any way on place, just as there is a time, in this sense, that is not defined or limited by motion. The absolute time of al-Razi is, like matter, infinite; it thus transcends the time which Aristotle confined to the measurement of motion. Razi, in the cases of both time and matter, knew well how he differed from Aristotle and also fully accepted and intended the consequences inherent in his anti-Peripatetic positions." (Paul E. Walker)[page needed]

Excerpt from The Philosophical Approach

"(...) In short, while I am writing the present book, I have written so far around 200 books and articles on different aspects of science, philosophy, theology, and hekmat (wisdom). (...) I never entered the service of any king as a military man or a man of office, and if I ever did have a conversation with a king, it never went beyond my medical responsibility and advice. (...) Those who have seen me know, that I did not into excess with eating, drinking or acting the wrong way. As to my interest in science, people know perfectly well and must have witnessed how I have devoted all my life to science since my youth. My patience and diligence in the pursuit of science has been such that on one special issue specifically I have written 20,000 pages (in small print), moreover I spent fifteen years of my life -night and day- writing the big collection entitled Al Hawi. It was during this time that I lost my eyesight, my hand became paralyzed, with the result that I am now deprived of reading and writing. Nonetheless, I've never given up, but kept on reading and writing with the help of others. I could make concessions with my opponents and admit some shortcomings, but I am most curious what they have to say about my scientific achievement. If they consider my approach incorrect, they could present their views and state their points clearly, so that I may study them, and if I determined their views to be right, I would admit it. However, if I disagreed, I would discuss the matter to prove my standpoint. If this is not the case, and they merely disagree with my approach and way of life, I would appreciate they only use my written knowledge and stop interfering with my behaviour."
"In the "Philosophical Biography", as seen above, he defended his personal and philosophical life style. In this work he laid out a framework based on the idea that there is life after death full of happiness, not suffering. Rather than being self-indulgent, man should pursue knowledge, utilise his intellect and apply justice in his life.
According to Al-Razi: "This is what our merciful Creator wants. The One to whom we pray for reward and whose punishment we fear."
In brief, man should be kind, gentle and just. Al-Razi believed that there is a close relationship between spiritual integrity and physical health. He did not implicate that the soul could avoid distress due to his fear of death. He simply states that this psychological state cannot be avoided completely unless the individual is convinced that, after death, the soul will lead a better life. This requires a thorough study of esoteric doctrines and/or religions. He focuses on the opinion of some people who think that the soul perishes when the body dies. Death is inevitable, therefore one should not pre-occupy the mind with it, because any person who continuously thinks about death will become distressed and think as if he is dying when he continuously ponders on that subject. Therefore, he should forget about it in order to avoid upsetting himself. When contemplating his destiny after death, a benevolent and good man who acts according to the ordinances of the Islamic Shari`ah, has after all nothing to fear because it indicates that he will have comfort and permanent bliss in the Hereafter. The one who doubts the Shari`ah, may contemplate it, and if he diligently does this, he will not deviate from the right path. If he falls short, Allah will excuse him and forgive his sins because it is not demanded of him to do something which he cannot achieve." (Dr. Muhammad Abdul-Hadi Abu Reidah)

Books on philosophy

This is a partial list of Razi's books on philosophy. Some books may have been copied or published under different titles.

  • The Small Book on Theism
  • Response to Abu'al'Qasem Braw
  • The Greater Book on Theism
  • Modern Philosophy
  • Dar Roshan Sakhtane Eshtebaah
  • Dar Enteghaade Mo'tazlian
  • Delsoozi Bar Motekaleman
  • Meydaneh Kherad
  • Khasel
  • Resaaleyeh Rahnamayeh Fehrest
  • Ghasideyeh Ilaahi
  • Dar Alet Afarineshe Darandegan
  • Shakkook
  • Naghseh Ketabe Tadbir
  • Naghsnamehyeh Ferforius
  • Do name be Hasanebne Moharebe Ghomi

Notable books in English:

  • Spiritual Medicine
  • The Philosophical Approach (Al Syrat al Falsafiah)
  • The Metaphysics

On Religion

A number of contradictory works and statements about religion have been ascribed to Razi. According to al-Biruni's Bibliography of Razi (Risāla fī Fihrist Kutub al-Rāzī), Razi wrote two "heretical books": "Fī al-Nubuwwāt (On Prophecies) and "Fī Ḥiyal al-Mutanabbīn (On the Tricks of False Prophets). According to Biruni, the first "was claimed to be against religions" and the second "was claimed as attacking the necessity of the prophets."[37] In his Risala, Biruni further criticized and expressed caution about Razi's religious views, noting an influence of Manichaeism. However, Biruni also listed some other works of Razi on religion, including Fi Wujub Da‘wat al-Nabi ‘Ala Man Nakara bi al-Nubuwwat (Obligation to Propagate the Teachings of the Prophet Against Those who Denied Prophecies) and Fi anna li al-Insan Khaliqan Mutqinan Hakiman (That Man has a Wise and Perfect Creator), among others, listed under his works on the "divine sciences".[37] None of these works are now extant.

Other views and quotes that are often ascribed to Razi are found in a book written by Abu Hatim al-Razi, called Aʿlām al-nubuwwa, and not in any extant work of Razi. Abu Hatim was an Isma'ili missionary who debated Razi, but whether he has faithfully recorded the views of Razi is disputed. According to Abdul Latif al-'Abd, Islamic philosophy professor at Cairo University, Abu Hatim and his student, Ḥamīd al-dīn Karmānī (d. 411AH)[citation needed], were Isma'ili extremists who often misrepresented the views of Razi in their works.[38] This view is also corroborated by early historians like al-Shahrastani who noted "that such accusations should be doubted since they were made by Ismāʿīlīs, who had been severely attacked by Muḥammad ibn Zakariyyā Rāzī".[39] Al-'Abd also points out that the views allegedly expressed by Razi contradict what is found in Razi's own works, like the Spiritual Medicine (Fī al-ṭibb al-rūḥānī). Al-'Abd considers the content of the Spiritual Medicine to be a refutation to the claims made by Abu Hatim about Razi's religious views.[38]

According to Abu Hatim, Razi offered harsh criticism concerning religions, in particular those religions that claim to have been revealed by prophetic experiences.[40][41][42] Razi asserted that "[God] should not set some individuals over others, and there should be between them neither rivalry nor disagreement which would bring them to perdition."[43] He argued,

On what ground do you deem it necessary that God should single out certain individuals [by giving them prophecy], that he should set them up above other people, that he should appoint them to be the people's guides, and make people dependent upon them?[43]

Concerning the link between violence and religion, Razi expressed that God must have known, considering the many disagreements between different religions, that "there would be a universal disaster and they would perish in the mutual hostilities and fighting. Indeed, many people have perished in this way, as we can see."[43]

He was also critical of the lack of interest among religious adherents in the rational analysis of their beliefs, and the violent reaction which takes its place:

If the people of this religion are asked about the proof for the soundness of their religion, they flare up, get angry and spill the blood of whoever confronts them with this question. They forbid rational speculation, and strive to kill their adversaries. This is why truth became thoroughly silenced and concealed.[43]

Al-Razi believed that common people had originally been duped into belief by religious authority figures and by the status quo. He believed that these authority figures were able to continually deceive the common people "as a result of [religious people] being long accustomed to their religious denomination, as days passed and it became a habit. Because they were deluded by the beards of the goats, who sit in ranks in their councils, straining their throats in recounting lies, senseless myths and "so-and-so told us in the name of so-and-so…"[43]

He believed that the existence of a large variety of religions was, in itself, evidence that they were all man made, saying, "Jesus claimed that he is the son of God, while Moses claimed that He had no son, and Muhammad claimed that he [Jesus] was created like the rest of humanity."[43] and "Mani and Zoroaster contradicted Moses, Jesus and Muhammad regarding the Eternal One, the coming into being of the world, and the reasons for the [existence] of good and evil."[43] In relation to the Hebrew's God asking of sacrifices, he said that "This sounds like the words of the needy rather than of the Laudable Self-sufficient One."[43]

On the Qur'an, Razi said:

You claim that the evidentiary miracle is present and available, namely, the Koran. You say: "Whoever denies it, let him produce a similar one." Indeed, we shall produce a thousand similar, from the works of rhetoricians, eloquent speakers and valiant poets, which are more appropriately phrased and state the issues more succinctly. They convey the meaning better and their rhymed prose is in better meter. … By God what you say astonishes us! You are talking about a work which recounts ancient myths, and which at the same time is full of contradictions and does not contain any useful information or explanation. Then you say: "Produce something like it"‽[43]

The above is a translation of a quote from Mohammad Ibn Zakariya al-Razi's now lost treatise, Mahariq al anbiya مخارق الانبياء (The Prophets' Fraudulent Tricks), in Abu Hatim al-Razi's refutation, A'lam al-Nubuwwah (Signs of Prophecy).[44] Another, longer, translation of the same passage is also available.[45]

From the beginning of the human history, all of those who claimed to be prophets were, in his worst assumption, tortuous and devious and with his best assumption had psychological problems.[40][41][42]

Razi's masters and opponents

Razi studied medicine under Ali ibn Sahl, however, Ibn al-Nadim indicates that he studied philosophy under al-Bakhi, who had travelled much and possessed great knowledge of philosophy and ancient sciences.

Razi's hamud opponents, on the contrary, are well-known. They are the following:

  • Abu al-Rabban al-Balki, chief of the Mu'tazilah of Baghdad (d. 319 AH/931 CE), a contemporary of Razi who wrote many refutations about Razi's books, especially in his Ilm al-Ilahi. His disagreements with Razi entailed his thoughts on the concept of 'Time'.
  • Shuhaid ibn al-Husain al-Balkhi, with whom Razi had many controversies; one of these was on the concept of 'Pleasure', expounded in his Tafdll Ladhdhat al-Nafs which abu Sulaiman al-Mantiqi al-Sijistani quotes in his work Siwan al-Hikmah. Al-Balkhi died prior to 329 AH/940 CE.
  • Abu Hatim al-Razi (Ahmad ibn Hamdan). an Isma'ili missionary, was one of his most influential opponents (d. 322 AH/933-934 CE). He published his controversies with Razi in his book A'lam al-Nubuwwah. Because of this book, Razi's thoughts on Prophets and Religion are preserved to the present time.
  • Ibn al-Tammar (seemingly being abu Bakr Husain al-Tammar, according to Kraus) was a physician who had some disputes with Razi, as documented by Abu Hatim al-Razi in A'lam al-Nubuwwah. Ibn al-Tammar disagreed with Razi's book al-Tibb al-Ruhani but Razi rebutted him in two antitheses:
First refutation of al-Tammar's disagreement with Misma'i concerning 'Matter'.
Second refutation of al-Tammar's opinion of 'the Atmosphere of subterranean habitations'.
  • Following are authors as described by Razi in his writings:
    • Al-Misma'i, a Mutakallim, who opposed 'materialists', counteracted Razi's treatise.
    • Jarir, a physician who had a theory about 'The eating of black mulberries after consuming water-melon'.
    • Al-Hasan ibn Mubarik al-Ummi, to whom Razi wrote two epistles with commentaries.
    • Al-Kayyal, a Mutakallim: al-Razi wrote a book on about his Theory of the Imam.
    • Mansur ibn Talhah, being the author of the book "Being", which was criticized by al-Razi.
    • Muhammad ibn al-Laith al-Rasa'ili whose opposition against alchemists was disputed by al-Razi.
  • Ahmad ibn al-Tayyib al-Sarakhasi (d. 286 AH/899 CE), was an older contemporary of al-Razi. Al-Razi disagreed with him on the question of 'bitter taste'. He moreover opposed his teacher Ya'qub ibn Ishaq al-Kindi, regarding his writings, in which he discredited alchemists.

More names could be added to this list of all people opposed by al-Razi, specifically the Mu'tazilah and different Mutakallimin.

Criticism

Al-Razi's religious and philosophical views were later criticized by Abu Rayhan Biruni and Avicenna in the early 11th century. Biruni in particular wrote a short Risala treatise dealing with al-Razi, criticizing him for his sympathy with Manichaeism,[46] his Hermetical writings, his religious and philosophical views,[47] for refusing to mathematize physics, and his active opposition to mathematics.[48] Avicenna, who was himself a physician and philosopher, also criticized al-Razi.[49] During a debate with Biruni, Avicenna stated:

Or from Muhammad ibn Zakariyyab al-Razi, who meddles in metaphysics and exceeds his competence. He should have remained confined to surgery and to urine and stool testing—indeed he exposed himself and showed his ignorance in these matters.[50]

Quotes about Razi

"Rhazes was the greatest physician of Islam and the Medieval Ages."– George Sarton[51]
"Rhazes remained up to the 17th century the indisputable authority of medicine."– The Encyclopaedia of Islam[page needed]
"His writings on smallpox and measles show originality and accuracy, and his essay on infectious diseases was the first scientific treatise on the subject." – The Bulletin of the World Health Organization (May 1970)
"In today's world we tend to see scientific advance as the product of great movements, massive grant-funded projects, and larger-than-life socio-economic forces. It is easy to forget, therefore, that many contributions stemmed from the individual efforts of scholars like Rhazes. Indeed, pharmacy can trace much of its historical foundations to the singular achievements of this ninth-century Persian scholar." — Michael E. Flannery[page needed]

Legacy

The modern-day Razi Institute in Tehran, and Razi University in Kermanshah were named after him, and 'Razi Day' ('Pharmacy Day') is commemorated in Iran every August 27.[52][53]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Pathfinders: The Golden Age of Arabic Science (ISBN 978-1-84614-161-4)
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h Iskandar, Albert (2006). "Al-Rāzī". Encyclopaedia of the history of science, technology, and medicine in non-western cultures (2nd ed.). Springer. pp. 155–156. 
  3. ^ Robinson, Victor (1944), The story of medicine, New York: New Home Library 
  4. ^ Porter, Dorothy (2005), Health, civilization, and the state: a history of public health from ancient to modern times, New York: Routledge (published 1999), p. 25, ISBN 0-415-20036-9 
  5. ^ History of civilizations of Central Asia, Motilal Banarsidass Publ., ISBN 81-208-1596-3, vol. IV, part two, p. 228.
  6. ^ A J, Arberry (1950 (translation)). Rhazes, The Spiritual Physick of Rhazes. London: John Murray. 
  7. ^ Hakeem Abdul Hameed, Exchanges between India and Central Asia in the field of Medicine
  8. ^ Influence of Islam on World Civilization" by Prof. Z. Ahmed, p. 127.
  9. ^ Ganchy, Sally. Islam and Science, Medicine, and Technology. New York: Rosen Pub., 2008.
  10. ^ a b David W. Tschanz, PhD (2003), "Arab(?) Roots of European Medicine", Heart Views 4 (2).
  11. ^ "Handbook to Life in the Medieval World, 3-Volume Set", by Madeleine Pelner Cosman, Linda Gale Jones, page = 52, isbn=9781438109077, publisher = Infobase Publishing
  12. ^ Rāzī, Abū Bakr Muḥammad ibn Zakarīyā, Fuat Sezgin, Māzin ʻAmāwī, Carl Ehrig-Eggert, and E. Neubauer. Muḥammad ibn Zakarīyāʼ ar-Rāzī (d. 313/925): texts and studies. Frankfurt am Main: Institute for the History of Arabic-Islamic Science at the Johann Wolfgang Goethe University, 1999.
  13. ^ Browne (2001, p. 44)
  14. ^ Richter-Bernburg
  15. ^ Boyce, Mary; Frantz, Grenet (1982). History of Zoroastrianism: Under The Achaemenians. Leiden: Brill. p. 8. ISBN 90-04-06506-7.  (See also the following excerpt: "the question of the identification of Avestan Raya with the Raga in the inscription of Darius I at Bīsotūn [...] with Ray[...] has by no means been settled".Gnoli, Gerardo. "Avestan geography". Encyclopaedia Iranica 3. ISBN 0-7100-9121-4. )
  16. ^ Rāzī, Abū Bakr Muḥammad ibn Zakarīyā. "The Book of Medicine Dedicated to Mansur and Other Medical Tracts - Liber ad Almansorem". World Digital Library (in Latin). Retrieved 2014-03-02. 
  17. ^ Rāzī, Abū Bakr Muḥammad ibn Zakarīyā. "The Book on Medicine Dedicated to al-Mansur - الكتاب المنصوري في الطب". World Digital Library (in Amharic, Arabic). Retrieved 2014-03-02. 
  18. ^ "Commentary on the Chapter Nine of the Book of Medicine Dedicated to Mansur - Commentaria in nonum librum Rasis ad regem Almansorem". World Digital Library (in Latin). 1542. Retrieved 2014-03-02. 
  19. ^ Magner, Lois N. A History of Medicine. New York: M. Dekker, 1992, p. 140.
  20. ^ Pococke, E. Historia Compendosia Dynastiarum. Oxford, 1663, p. 291.
  21. ^ Long, George (1841). The Penny cyclopædia of the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge, Volume 19. C. Knight. p. 445. 
  22. ^ Bullivant, Stephen, and Michael Ruse. The Oxford Handbook of Atheism. Oxford, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press, 2013, p. 641.
  23. ^ Stroumsa, Sarah. Freethinkers of Medieval Islam: Ibn al-Rawandi, Abu Bakr al- Razi and Their Impact on Islamic Thought. Leiden/Boston/Koln: Brill, 1999, p. 87.
  24. ^ Seff, Philip (1996). Petrified lightning and more amazing stories from "Our fascinating earth". Chicago, Ill: Contemporary Books. p. 132. ISBN 0-8092-3250-2. 
  25. ^ "Saab Medical Library - كتاب في الجدري و الحصبة - American University of Beirut". Ddc.aub.edu.lb. 1 June 2003. Retrieved 15 October 2012. 
  26. ^ Porter, Roy. The Greatest Benefit to Mankind: A Medical History of Humanity. New York: W. W. Norton, 1997, p. 97.
  27. ^ Kamiar, Mohammad. Brilliant Biruni: A Life Story of Abu Rayhan Mohammad Ibn Ahmad. Lanham, Md: Scarecrow Press, 2009.
  28. ^ a b Ruska, Julius. Al-Birūni als Quelle für das Leben und die Schriften al-Rāzi's. Bruxelles: Weissenbruch, 1922.
  29. ^ Gunton, Simon. The History of the Church of Peterborough. London, Richard Chiswell, publisher, 1686. Facsimile edition published by Clay, Tyas, and Watkins in Peterborough and Stamford (1990). Item Fv. on pp. 187-8.
  30. ^ Islamic Science, the Scholar and Ethics, Foundation for Science Technology and Civilisation.
  31. ^ Rāzī, Abū Bakr Muḥammad ibn Zakarīyā. "The Comprehensive Book on Medicine - كتاب الحاوى فى الطب". World Digital Library. Retrieved 2014-03-02. 
  32. ^ "The Comprehensive Book on Medicine - كتاب الحاوي". World Digital Library (in Arabic). Around 1674 CE. Retrieved 2014-03-02. 
  33. ^ Rāzī, Abū Bakr Muḥammad ibn Zakarīyā (1529). "The Comprehensive Book on Medicine - Continens Rasis". World Digital Library (in Latin). Retrieved 2014-03-02. 
  34. ^ Emilie Savage-Smith (1996), "Medicine", in Roshdi Rashed, ed., Encyclopedia of the History of Arabic Science, Vol. 3, p. 903-962 [917]. Routledge, London and New York.
  35. ^ A Treatise on the Small-pox and Measles, Translated by William Alexander Greenhill, Published by Printed for the Sydenham Society [by C and J. Adlrd], 1848, pp. 252, URL
  36. ^ M. Th. Houtsma, ed. (1993). E. J. Brill's First Encyclopaedia of Islam, 1913-1936, Volume 4. Brill. p. 1101. ISBN 90-04-09790-2. 
  37. ^ a b Deuraseh, Nurdeng (2008). "Risalat Al-Biruni Fi Fihrist Kutub Al-Razi: A Comprehensive Bibliography of the Works of Abu Bakr Al-Rāzī (d. 313 A.h/925) and Al-Birūni (d. 443/1051)". Journal of Aqidah and Islamic Thought 9: 51–100. 
  38. ^ a b Abdul Latif Muhammad al-Abd (1978). Al-ṭibb al-rūḥānī li Abū Bakr al-Rāzī. Cairo: Maktabat al-Nahḍa al-Miṣriyya. pp. 4, 13, 18. 
  39. ^ Seyyed Hossein Nasr, and Mehdi Amin Razavi, An Anthology of Philosophy in Persia, vol. 1, (New York: Oxford University Press, 1999), p. 353, quote: "Among the other eminent figures who attacked Rāzī are the Ismāʿīlī philosopher Abū Ḥatem Rāzī, who wrote two books to refute Rāzī's views on theodicy, prophecy, and miracles; and Nāṣir-i Khusraw. Shahrastānī, however, indicates that such accusations should be doubted since they were made by Ismāʿīlīs, who had been severely attacked by Muḥammad ibn Zakariyyā Rāzī"
  40. ^ a b Sarah Stroumsa (1999). Freethinkers of Medieval Islam: Ibn Al-Rawandi, Abu Bakr Al-Razi and Their Impact on Islamic Thought. Brill. 
  41. ^ a b Kraus, P & Pines, S (1913–1938). "Al-Razi". Encyclopedia of Islam. p. 1136. 
  42. ^ a b Amira Nowaira (10 May 2010). "When Islamic atheism thrived". guardian.co.uk. 
  43. ^ a b c d e f g h i Hecht, Jennifer Michael (2003). Doubt: A History: The Great Doubters and Their Legacy of Innovation from Socrates and Jesus to Thomas Jefferson and Emily Dickinson. Harper San Francisco. pp. 227–230. ISBN 0-06-009795-7. 
  44. ^ Sarah Stroumsa (1999). Freethinkers of Medieval Islam: Ibn Al-Rawandi, Abu Bakr Al-Razi and Their Impact on Islamic Thought. Brill. pp. 103–104.  Google books preview: http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=9b8uQfmQM8kC&pg=PA103#v=onepage&q&f=false
  45. ^ Paul E. Walker (1992). "The Political Implications of Al-Razi's Philosophy". In Charles E. Butterworth ed. The Political aspects of Islamic philosophy: essays in honor of Muhsin S. Mahdi. Harvard University Press. pp. 87–89.  Google books preview: http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=WPc-h9TeED4C&pg=PA87#v=onepage&q&f=false
  46. ^ William Montgomery Watt (2004-04-14). "BĪRŪNĪ and the study of non-Islamic Religions". Retrieved 2008-01-25. 
  47. ^ Seyyed Hossein Nasr (1993), An Introduction to Islamic Cosmological Doctrines, p. 166. State University of New York Press, ISBN 0-7914-1516-3.
  48. ^ Shlomo Pines (1986), Studies in Arabic versions of Greek texts and in mediaeval science 2, Brill Publishers, p. 340, ISBN 965-223-626-8 
  49. ^ Shlomo Pines (1986), Studies in Arabic versions of Greek texts and in mediaeval science 2, Brill Publishers, p. 362, ISBN 965-223-626-8 
  50. ^ Rafik Berjak and Muzaffar Iqbal, "Ibn Sina—Al-Biruni correspondence", Islam & Science, December 2003.
  51. ^ George Sarton, Introduction to the History of Science (1927-48), 1.609
  52. ^ Razi Vaccine & Serum Research Institute.
  53. ^ Hadith.ac.ir, Razi commemoration day

References

Further reading

Primary literature

By al-Razi

  • Arberry, A.J. (1950). "The Spiritual Physick of Rhazes". The Wisdom of the East Series. The Liberty Fund. 
  • See C. Brockelmann for the manuscript of Razi's extant books in general, see Brockelmann, GAL, I, pp. 268–71 (second edition), Suppl., Vol. I, pp. 418–21.
  • Paul Kraus, Abi Bakr Mohammadi Filii Zachariae Raghensis: Opera Philosophica, fragmentaque quae superssunt. Pars Prior. Cairo 1939. Note: this is the only edition of Al-Razi's philosophical books and fragments still extant. Only the first volume was published since Kraus's suicide prevented the publication of the second volume for which he already had gathered a great amount of material. This material was transferred, after his death, to the Institut Francais d'Archeologie Orientale, in Cairo; it still remains to be published.[citation needed]
  • Abdul Latif Muhammad al-Abd (1978). Al-ṭibb al-rūḥānī li Abū Bakr al-Rāzī. Cairo: Maktabat al-Nahḍa al-Miṣriyya. 

By others

  • Ibn Al-Nadim, Fihrist, (ed. Flugel), pp. 299 et sqq.
  • Sa'id al-Andalusi, Tabaqat al-Umam, p. 33
  • Ibn Juljul, Tabaqat al-Atibba w-al-Hukama, (ed. Fu'ad Sayyid), Cairo, 1355/1936, pp. 77–78
  • J. Ruska, Al-Biruni als Quelle fur das Leben und die Schriften al-Razi's, Isis, Vol. V, 1924, pp. 26–50.
  • Al-Biruni, Epitre de Beruni, contenant le repertoire des ouvres de Muhammad ibn Zakariya ar-Razi, publiee par P. Kraus, Paris, 1936
  • Al-Baihaqi, Tatimmah Siwan al-Hikma, (ed. M. Ghafi), Lahore, 1351/1932
  • Al-Qifti,Tarikh al-Hukama, (ed. Lippert), pp. 27–177
  • Ibn Abi Usaibi'ah,Uyun al-Anba fi Tabaqat al-Atibba, Vol. I, pp. 309–21
  • Abu Al-Faraj ibn al-'Ibri (Bar-Hebraeus),Mukhtasar Tarikh al-Duwal, (ed. A. Salhani), p. 291
  • Ibn Khallikan, Wafayat al-A'yan, (ed. Muhyi al-Din 'Abd al-Hamid), Cairo, 1948, No. 678, pp. 244–47
  • Al-Safadi, Nakt al-Himyan, pp. 249–50
  • Ibn Al-'Imad, Shadharat al-Dhahab, Vol. II, p. 263
  • Al-'Umari, Masalik al-Absar, Vol. V, Part 2, ff. 301-03 (photostat copy in Dar al-Kutub al-Misriyyah).

Secondary literature

  • G. S. A. Ranking, The Life and Works of Rhazes, in Proceedings of the Seventeenth International Congress of Medicine, London, 1913, pp. 237–68.
  • Al-Razi als Bahnbrecher einer neuer Chemie, Deutsche Literaturzeitung, 1923, pp. 118–24.
  • Die Alchemie al-Razi's der Islam, Vol. XXII,pp. 283–319.
  • Uber den gegenwartigen Stand der Razi-Forschung, Archivio di stori della scienza, 1924, Vol. V, pp. 335–47
  • H. H. Shader, ZDMG, 79, pp. 228–35 (see translation into Arabic by Abdurrahman Badawi in al-Insan al-Kamil,Islamica, Vol. XI, Cairo, 1950, pp. 37–44).
  • E. O. von Lippmann, Entstehung und Ausbreitung der Alchemie, Vol. II, p. 181.
  • S. Pines, Die Atomenlehre ar-Razi's in Beitrage zur islamischen Atomenlehre, Berlin, 1936, pp. 34–93.
  • Dr. Mahmud al-Najmabadi, Shah Hal Muhammad ibn Zakariya, (1318/1900)
  • Gamil Bek, Uqud al-Jauliar, Vol. I, pp. 118–27.
  • Izmirli Haqqi, Ilahiyat, Fak. Macm., Vol. I, p. 151; Vol. II, p. 36, Vol. III, pp. 177 et seq.
  • Abdurrahman Badawi, Min Tarlkh al-Ilhad fi al-Islam Islamica, Vol. II, Cairo, 1945, pp. 198–228.
  • Hirschberg,Geschichte der Augenheilkunde, p. 101.
  • E. G.Browne, Arabian Medicine, Cambridge, 1921, pp. 44–53.
  • M. Meyerhof, Legacy of Islam, pp. 323 et seq.
  • F. Wüstenfeld, Geschichte der Arabischen Arzte und Naturforscher, ftn. 98.
  • L. Leelerc, Histoire de la medicine arabe, Paris, 1876, Vol. I, pp. 337–54.
  • H. P. J. Renaud, A propos du millenaire de Razes, in bulletin de la Societe Irancaise d'Histoire de la medicine, Mars-avril, 1931, pp. 203 et seq.
  • A. Eisen, Kimiya al-Razi, RAAD, DIB, 62/4.
  • Aldo Mieli, La science arabe, Leiden, 1938, pp. 8, 16.
  • Nasr, Science and Civilization in Islam, see. Razes: The Secret of Secrets, p. 273, also pp. 197–200, and Anawati: L'Alchemie arabe in Rased.
  • Browne, Edward Granville (2001). Islamic Medicine. Goodword Books Pvt. Ltd. ISBN 81-87570-19-9. 
  • M. M. Sharif, A History of Muslim Philosophy
  • Walker, P. "The Political Implications of al-Razi's Philosophy", in C. Butterworth (ed.) The Political Aspects of Islamic Philosophy, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 61-94.(1992)
  • Motazed, K. Mohammad Zakaria Razi

Encyclopedia

External links