جایزهٔ گِرَمی (به انگلیسی: Grammy Awards) (در اصل: جایزهٔ گرامافون) نام مراسم اهدای جوایزی است که توسط آکادمی ملی علوم و هنرهای ضبط[و ۱]، به دستاوردهای برجسته در تولید موسیقی تعلق میگیرد. از بین سه مراسم بزرگ موسیقی جهان، گرمی بزرگترین آنها است. ارزش جایزهٔ گرمی برابر با جایزهٔ اُسکار در صنعت فیلمسازی و جایزهٔ اِمی در تلویزیون است.
جایزه گرمی که به رسم یادبود به برندگان اهدا میشود، تندیس طلایی دستساز یک گرامافون است که توسط بیلینگز آرتورکز ساخته شدهاست. تا سال ۲۰۰۶، برخلاف سایر جوایز دوره اهدای جوایز گرمی در تاریخ ۱ اکتبر آغاز شده و آلبومها و ترانههای انتخاب شده برای شرکت در گرمی سال بعد انتخاب میشوند. برای مثال آلبوم Double Fantasy از جان لنون و یوکو آنو در ۱۷ نوامبر ۱۹۸۰ ساخته شد، و ۱۶ روز دیرتر از جوایز گرمی سال ۱۹۸۱ ساخته شد؛ برای همین در جوایز گرمی سال ۱۹۸۲ نامزد شد و از قضا جایزه گرمی بهترین آلبوم سال را از آن خود کرد. این تاریخ چند ماه زودتر از تقویم اسکار بود و نتایج جالبی هم داشت. برای مثال فیلم ری در سال ۲۰۰۵ برنده جایزه اسکار بهترین صداگذاری شد اما برنده جایزه گرمی رده ۸۰ و رده ۸۱ (بهترین موسیقی متن فیلم) سال ۲۰۰۶ شد.
نوشتار اصلی: فهرست ردههای جایزه گرمی
مراسم جایزهٔ گرمی دارای «چهار جایزهٔ اصلی» است که سبکبندی نشدهاند:
این مراسم دارای ۵ جایزهٔ ویژهاست:
نوشتار اصلی: تریلر (آلبوم)
مایکل جکسون در سال ۱۹۸۴ توانست ۸ جایزهٔ گرمی را در یک شب برنده شود.
کسی که بیشترین جایزه را نامزد شده[ویرایش]
کسی که در یک شب بیشترین جایزه را نامزد شده[ویرایش]
جوانترین هنرمندان نامزد شده[ویرایش]
آلیسون کراس ۲۰ جایزه گرمی را برای خود برد، بیشتر از هر خواننده زن و کانتری دیگر. وی تاکنون همواره در رده هفتم فهرست برندگان بودهاست.
رهبر افسانهای اپرا لئونتین پرایس برنده ۱۸ جایزه بودهاست.
بالاترین رکورد جوایز گرمی در یک شب (6) عدد می باشد که توسط: ادل 2012 به دست آمد
کریستوفر کراس تنها خوانندهای بود که «چهار جایزه بزرگ» را در یک شب از آن خود کرد (ضبط سال، آلبوم سال، ترانه سال و بهترین هنرمند جدید). از طرفی دیگر، نورا جونز هم ضبط سال، آلبوم سال، و بهترین هنرمند جدید را برنده شد و در آن سال نوازندهٔ گیتار او، جس هریس برنده ترانه سال برای 'Don't Know Why' شد. علیرغم اینکه نورا جونز آن ترانه را خوانده بود برنده آن نشد، زیرا آن جایزه ترانهساز است.
یوتو بیش از هر گروه راک دیگر برنده جایزه گرمی شد. تا امروز آنها برنده ۲۲ جایزه شدهاند. آنها دو بار برنده بهترین آلبوم سال، دوبار برنده بهترین ضبط سال، دو بار بهترین ترانهٔ سال و دو بار بهترین آلبوم راک سال شدند.
مکانهای اجرا و میزبانی[ویرایش]
A Grammy Award (originally called Gramophone Award) – or Grammy – is an accolade by the National Academy of Recording Arts and Sciences of the United States to recognize outstanding achievement in the music industry. The annual presentation ceremony features performances by prominent artists, and some of the awards of more popular interest are presented in a widely viewed televised ceremony. It is the music equivalent to the Emmy Awards for television, the Tony Awards for stage performances, and the Academy Awards for motion pictures.
The first Grammy Awards ceremony was held on May 4, 1959, and it was set up to honor musical accomplishments by performers for the year 1958. Following the 2011 ceremony, NARAS overhauled many Grammy Award categories for 2012. The 55th Grammy Awards were held on February 10, 2013, at the Staples Center in Los Angeles, California.
The Grammy Awards had their origin in the Hollywood Walk of Fame project in the 1950s. As the recording executives chosen for the Walk of Fame (Tabinda Walk) committee worked at compiling a list of important recording industry people who might qualify for a Walk of Fame star, they realized there were many more people who were leaders in their business who would never earn a star on Hollywood Boulevard. The music executives decided to rectify this by creating an award given by their industry similar to the Oscars and the Emmys. This was the beginning of the National Academy of Recording Arts and Sciences. After it was decided to create such an award, there was still a question of what to call it; one working title was the Eddie, to honor the inventor of the phonograph, Thomas Edison. They finally settled on using the name of the invention of Emile Berliner, the gramophone, for the awards, which were first given for the year 1958.
The gold-plated trophies, each depicting a gilded gramophone, are made and assembled by hand by Billings Artworks in Ridgway, Colorado. In 1990 the original Grammy design was revamped, changing the traditional soft lead for a stronger alloy less prone to damage, made of slumped and reformed pre-war Gibson flat head banjo tone rings, making the trophy bigger and grander. The trophies with the recipient's name engraved on them are not available until after the award announcements, so "stunt" trophies are re-used each year for the broadcast.
As of February 2009, 7,578 Grammy trophies had been awarded.
The "General Field" are four awards which are not restricted by genre.
Other awards are given for performance and production in specific genres, as well as for other contributions such as artwork and video. Special awards are given for longer-lasting contributions to the music industry.
Because of the large number of award categories (78 in 2012, 81 in 2013 and 82 in 2014), and the desire to feature several performances by various artists, only the ones with the most popular interest - typically about 10 to 12, including the four General Field categories and one or two categories in the most popular music genres (i.e. pop, rock, country, rap) - are presented directly at the televised award ceremony. Other awards are presented in a pre-telecast ceremony earlier in the afternoon of the Grammy awards ceremony.
2012 category restructuring
On April 6, 2011, The Recording Academy announced a drastic overhaul of many Grammy Award categories for 2012. The number of categories was cut from 109 to 78. The most important change was the elimination of the distinction between male and female soloists and between collaborations and duo/groups in various genre fields (pop, rock, R&B, country, and rap). Also, several categories for instrumental soloists were discontinued. Recordings in these categories now fall under the general categories for best solo performances.
The most eliminations occurred in the roots category. Up to and including 2011, there were separate categories for various regional American music forms, such as Hawaiian music, Native American music and Zydeco/Cajun music. Due to the consistently low number of entries for these categories, The Recording Academy decided to combine all these music variations into the new Best Regional Roots Music Album, including polka, which lost its own separate category in 2009.
In the same genre field, the traditional and contemporary blues categories and the traditional and contemporary folk categories each were consolidated into one per genre, due to the number of entries and given the challenges in distinguishing between contemporary folk and Americana, and contemporary and traditional blues. In the world music genre field, the traditional and contemporary categories also merged.
In the classical genre field, its main category Best Classical Album was discontinued because most recipients in this category had also won in one of the other classical categories for the same album. Classical recordings are now eligible for the main Album of the Year category.
There were also a few minor name changes to better reflect the nature of the separate categories. It was determined by the Recording Academy that the word "gospel" in the gospel genre field tends to conjure up the images and sounds of traditional soul gospel and leaves out the current contemporary Christian music (CCM). Therefore the genre field and some categories were renamed as Gospel/Contemporary Christian Music.
Since 2012, there have been a small number of adjustments made to the list of categories and genre fields. The number of categories has gone up from 78 in 2012 to 82 in 2014.
Record companies and individuals may submit recordings to be nominated. Nominations are made online and a physical copy of the work is sent to the National Academy of Recording Arts and Sciences. Once a work is entered, reviewing sessions are held, by more than 150 experts from the recording industry, to determine whether the work is eligible and entered in the correct category for official nomination.
The resulting list is circulated to all NARAS members, each of whom may vote to nominate in the general field (Record of the Year, Album of the Year, Song of the Year, and Best New Artist) and in no more than nine out of 30 other fields on their ballots. The five recordings that earn the most votes in each category become the nominees. There may be more than five nominees if there is a tie in the nomination process.
Whereas members of the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences are generally invited to screenings or are sent DVDs of movies nominated for Oscars, NARAS members do not receive nominated recordings.
After nominees have been determined, final voting ballots are sent to Recording Academy members, who may then vote in the general fields and in no more than eight of the 30 fields. NARAS members are encouraged, but not required, to vote only in their fields of expertise. Ballots are tabulated secretly by the major independent accounting firm Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu. Following the tabulation of votes the winners are announced at the Grammy Awards. The recording with the most votes in a category wins and it is possible to have a tie. Winners are presented with the Grammy Award and those who do not win are given a medal for their nomination.
In both voting rounds, Academy members are required to vote based upon quality alone, and not to be influenced by sales, chart performance, personal friendships, regional preferences or company loyalty. The acceptance of gifts is prohibited. Members are urged to vote in a manner that preserves the integrity of the academy.
The eligibility period for the 2013 Grammy Awards was October 1, 2011 to September 30, 2012.
Prior to 1971, the Grammy Award ceremonies were held in different locations on the same day. Originally New York City and Los Angeles were the host cities. Chicago joined being a host city in 1962, and then Nashville became the fourth location in 1965.
The 1971 ceremony, held at the Hollywood Palladium in Los Angeles, was the first to take place in one location. The ceremony was then moved to Madison Square Garden's Felt Forum in New York City, and then Nashville's Tennessee Theatre in the following two years. Then from 1974 to 2003, the Grammys were held in various venues in New York City and Los Angeles. Notable locations included New York City's Madison Square Garden and Radio City Music Hall; and Los Angeles' Shrine Auditorium, the Staples Center and the Hollywood Palladium.
In 2004, the Staples Center became the permanent home of the award ceremonies. The Grammy Museum was built across the street from Staples Center in LA Live to preserve the history of the Grammy Awards. Embedded on the sidewalks at the museum streets are bronze disks, similar to the Hollywood Walk of Fame, honoring each year's top winners, Record of the Year, Best New Artist, Album of the Year, and Song of the Year.
With 31 Grammy Awards, Sir Georg Solti is the artist with the most Grammy wins. Alison Krauss is the biggest winner among female artists with 27 awards. U2, with 22 Grammy Awards, holds the record for most awards won by a group.
The Grammy Awards has received criticism from various recording artists and music journalists.
When his band Pearl Jam won a Grammy in the category Best Hard Rock Performance in 1996, singer Eddie Vedder commented on stage: "I don't know what this means. I don't think it means anything." Glen Hansard, leader of the Irish rock group The Frames, stated in 2008 that the Grammys represent something outside of the real world of music "that's fully industry based." He said he wasn't that interested in attending that year's ceremony, even though he had been nominated for two different awards. Maynard James Keenan, lead singer of metal band Tool, did not attend the Grammy Awards ceremony to receive one of their awards. He explained his reasons:
It has also been criticized for generally awarding or nominating more commercially successful albums rather than critically successful albums. In a 2011 article, Los Angeles Times writer Randall Roberts was critical of the nominations for the 54th Grammy Awards, particularly for the Album of the Year category, noting the exclusion of Kanye West's My Beautiful Dark Twisted Fantasy, "the most critically acclaimed album of the year, a career-defining record", as a snub in favor of nominating less substantial albums. Roberts went on to criticize the Grammy Awards for being "mired in the past" and out of touch with "new media" and trends amongs music listeners such as music sharing, stating:
In an article for Time, journalist Touré also responded to the snub and expressed his general displeasure with the awards, stating "I don’t pretend to understand the Grammys. I have never been able to discern a consistent logic around who gets nominated or who gets statues. I comprehend the particular logic of the Oscars, but not the big awards for music. My normal state of confusion around what drives Grammy decisions was exponentialized this week when, to the shock of many, Kanye’s masterpiece My Beautiful Dark Twisted Fantasy was not nominated for a Grammy for Album of the Year." He went on to compare understanding the Grammy Awards to Kremlinology and commented on The Recording Academy's exclusion of more "mature" hip hop albums as Album of the Year nominees, noting that it occasionally opts to nominate "pop-friendly" hip hop albums instead.
In a 2011 profile for The New York Times following the 53rd Grammy Awards, frontman Justin Vernon of indie band Bon Iver was asked his opinion of the Grammys and how he would react to a nomination for his group, to which he responded,
He reaffirmed this sentiment and felt the Grammys are held in too, saying:
Bon Iver subsequently received four nominations in November for the 54th Grammy Awards. After winning the award, Vernon said in his acceptance, "It's really hard to accept this award. There's so much talent out here [...] and there's a lot of talent that's not here tonight. It's also hard to accept because you know, when I started to make songs I did it for the inherent reward of making songs, so I'm a little bit uncomfortable up here."
In his article "Everything Is Praised Again", Jon Caramanica of The New York Times criticized Grammy voters for being "conservative" and disregarding more "forward-looking" music, and wrote in response to the 54th Grammy Awards, "for the umpteenth time, the Grammys went with familiarity over risk, bestowing album of the year honors (and several more) on an album that reinforced the values of an older generation suspicious of change." He cited the Grammy successes of Lauryn Hill's The Miseducation (1999), Norah Jones' Come Away with Me (2003), and Adele's 21 (2011) as examples of "the Grammys dropp[ing] a boatload of awards on a young female singer-songwriter and her breakthrough album." Of Kanye West's absence from the ceremony, Caramanica stated, "He didn’t even bother to show up for the broadcast, which was well enough, because hip-hop was almost completely marginalized".
In an article for The Huffington Post, music executive and author Steve Stoute criticized the Recording Academy and the Grammy Awards for having "lost touch with contemporary popular culture" and noted "two key sources" for it: "(1) over-zealousness to produce a popular show that is at odds with its own system of voting and (2) fundamental disrespect of cultural shifts as being viable and artistic." Stoute accused them of snubbing artists with more cultural impact, citing respective losses by the critical and commercial successes in Eminem's The Marshall Mathers LP (2000) and Kanye West's Graduation (2007) in the Album of the Year category, and stated:
TV broadcasts and ratings
Prior to the first live Grammys telecast in 1971 on American Broadcasting Company (ABC), a series of taped annual specials in the 1960s called The Best on Record were broadcast on National Broadcasting Company (NBC). The first Grammy Award telecast took place on the night of November 29, 1959, as an episode of the NBC anthology series Sunday Showcase, which was normally devoted to plays, original TV dramas, and variety shows. Until 1971, awards ceremonies were held in both New York and Los Angeles, with winners accepting at one of the two. Pierre Cossette bought the rights to broadcast the ceremony from the National Academy of Recording Arts and Sciences and organized the first live telecast. CBS Broadcasting bought the rights in 1973 after moving the ceremony to Nashville, Tennessee; the American Music Awards were created for ABC (by Dick Clark) as a result.
The Recording Academy announced on June 21, 2011 that it had reached a new deal with CBS to keep the awards show on the network for another 10 years. CBS also broadcasted the annual nominations concert special on November 30, 2011 from Los Angeles. The Grammys aired on February 12, 2012. The 2011 Grammy Award show had 26.6 million viewers.
Notes and references