فصل بهار (بهار: آوردن بهترینها) اولین فصل از فصلهای مناطق معتدل است. در نیمکرهٔ شمالی زمین، این فصل منطبق با سه ماه فروردین، اردیبهشت و خرداد (براساس تقویم خورشیدی جلالی) است. بسیاری از مردم فصل بهار را آغاز زندگی دوبارهٔ طبیعت میدانند. در فصل بهار حیواناتی که دارای خواب زمستانی هستند، و همچنین، درختان از خواب زمستانی بیدار شده و زندگی را دوباره آغاز میکنند. حیوانات نیز در این فصل شروع به تولید مثل میکنند.
در فرهنگ عمومی برخی از کشورها، مثل ایران و افغانستان، به این فصل بسیار اهمیت میدهند، به طوری که، حتی، سال نو آنها در این فصل و با رسیدن خورشید به نقطهٔ اعتدال بهاری (اول فروردین، معمولا مطابق با ۲۱ مارس) شروع میشود. آنها شروع این سال را با مراسمی به نام نوروز جشن میگیرند که سیزده روز طول میکشد. این اهمیت در ادبیات نیز نمود زیادی دارد و بهار یکی از مهمترین سوژههای هنری و ادبی میباشد.
مطلع شعر[غزل]ی بهاریه از جلال الدین محمد بلخی رومی مشهور به مولوی:
For other uses, see Spring.
"Spring festival" redirects here. For the Chinese celebration, see Chinese New Year.
Spring is one of the four conventional temperate seasons, following winter and preceding summer. There are various technical definitions of spring, but local usage of the term varies according to local climate, cultures and customs. When it is spring in the Northern Hemisphere, it will be autumn in the Southern Hemisphere. At the spring equinox, days are approximately 12 hours long with day length increasing as the season progresses. Spring and "springtime" refer to the season, and also to ideas of rebirth, rejuvenation, renewal, resurrection and regrowth. Subtropical and tropical areas have climates better described in terms of other seasons, e.g. dry or wet, monsoonal or cyclonic. Often the cultures have locally defined names for seasons which have little equivalence to the terms originating in Europe.
Meteorologists generally define four seasons in many climatic areas: spring, summer, autumn (fall) and winter. These are demarcated by the values of their average temperatures on a monthly basis, with each season lasting three months. The three warmest months are by definition summer, the three coldest months are winter and the intervening gaps are spring and autumn. Spring, when defined in this manner, can start on different dates in different regions. In terms of complete months, in most north temperate zone locations, spring months are March, April and May, although differences exist from country to country. (Summer is June, July, August; autumn is September, October, November; winter is December, January, February). Most south temperate zone locations have opposing seasons with spring in September, October and November. Swedish meteorologists define the beginning of spring as the first occasion on which the average daytime temperature exceeds zero degrees Celsius for seven consecutive days, thus the date varies with latitude and elevation. In Australia and New Zealand, spring conventionally begins on 1 September and ends 30 November.
Astronomical and solar reckoning
In some regions in the Northern Hemisphere, the astronomical March equinox (varying between 19 and 21 March) is taken to mark the first day of spring, and the Northern solstice (around 21 June) is taken as the first day of summer. In other regions, the equinox is taken as mid-spring.
In South America, the Tupi-Guaraní calendar, from the former inhabitants of what is presently Brazil, northern Argentina and Paraguay, counted 365 days, plus a fourth part of a day, needing no extra day every four years. The beginning of the solar year was marked by the rising of the M25 Open Cluster in the constellation Sagittarius in the horizon, which occurs between 5 June and 11 June in this part of the world. For these native people, the four seasons were clearly identified by the solstices and equinoxes. The trajectory of the Sun throughout the year was divided into "The New Age" (Ara Pyahu) and "The Old Age" (Ara Ymã). Ara Pyahu was spring and summer, and Ara Ymã was autumn and winter. This calendar, which had no graphed or written form, marked activities such as hunting, fishing, planting, harvesting and religious rituals.
In East Asian Solar term, spring begins on 4 February and ends on 5 May. Similarly, according to the Celtic tradition, which is based solely on daylight and the strength of the noon sun, spring begins in early February (near Imbolc or Candlemas) and continues until early May (Beltane).
Other calendar-based reckoning
According to another tradition in the United States, 2 February, Candlemas, can be regarded as the start of spring if it is mild (see Groundhog Day). The US spring season can also be regarded as beginning on the day after Presidents' Day (the Tuesday after the third Monday in February) and ending on the Friday before Memorial Day weekend (the Friday before the last Monday in May). In South Africa, Australia and New Zealand, spring begins on 1 September and ends on 30 November, and has no relation to the vernal equinox. In Ireland spring traditionally starts on 1 February, St Brigid's Day, although Irish meteorologists consider the whole of February to be part of winter.
The beginning of spring is not always determined by fixed calendar dates. The phenological or ecological definition of spring relates to biological indicators; the blossoming of a range of plant species, and the activities of animals, or the special smell of soil that has reached the temperature for micro flora to flourish. It therefore varies according to the climate and according to the specific weather of a particular year. Most ecologists divide the year into six seasons that have no fixed dates. In addition to spring, ecological reckoning identifies an earlier separate prevernal (early or pre-spring) season between the hibernal (winter) and vernal (spring) seasons. This is a time when only the hardiest flowers like the crocus are in bloom, sometimes while there is still some snowcover on the ground.
During spring, the axis of the Earth is increasing its tilt relative to the Sun, and the length of daylight rapidly increases for the relevant hemisphere. The hemisphere begins to warm significantly causing new plant growth to "spring forth," giving the season its name. Snow, if a normal part of winter, begins to melt, and streams swell with runoff. Frosts, if a normal part of winter, become less severe. In climates that have no snow and rare frosts, the air and ground temperatures increase more rapidly. Many flowering plants bloom this time of year, in a long succession sometimes beginning when snow is still on the ground, continuing into early summer. In normally snowless areas "spring" may begin as early as February (Northern Hemisphere) heralded by the blooming of deciduous magnolias, cherries and quince, or August (Southern Hemisphere) in the same way. Many temperate areas have a dry spring, and wet autumn (fall), which brings about flowering in this season more consistent with the need for water as well as warmth. Subarctic areas may not experience "spring" at all until May or even June.
While spring is a result of the warmth caused by the changing orientation of the Earth's axis relative to the Sun, the weather in many parts of the world is overlain by events which appear very erratic taken on a year-to-year basis. The rainfall in spring (or any season) follows trends more related to longer cycles or events created by ocean currents and ocean temperatures. Good and well-researched examples are the El Niño effect and the Southern Oscillation Index.
Unstable weather may more often occur during spring, when warm air begins on occasions to invade from lower latitudes, while cold air is still pushing on occasions from the Polar regions. Flooding is also most common in and near mountainous areas during this time of year because of snowmelt, accelerated by warm rains. In the United States, Tornado Alley is most active this time of year, especially since the Rocky Mountains prevent the surging hot and cold air masses from spreading eastward and instead force them into direct conflict. Besides tornadoes, supercell thunderstorms can also produce dangerously large hail and very high winds, for which a severe thunderstorm warning or tornado warning is usually issued. Even more so than in winter, the jet streams play an important role in unstable and severe weather in the springtime in the Northern Hemisphere.
Spring is seen as a time of growth, renewal, of new life (both plant and animal) being born. The term is also used more generally as a metaphor for the start of better times, as in the Prague Spring. Spring in the Southern Hemisphere is different in several significant ways to that of the Northern Hemisphere. This is because: there is no land bridge between Southern Hemisphere countries and the Antarctic zone capable of bringing in cold air without the temperature-mitigating effects of extensive tracts of water; the vastly greater amount of ocean in the Southern Hemisphere at all latitudes; at this time in Earth's geologic history the Earth has an orbit which brings it in closer to the Southern Hemisphere for its warmer seasons; there is a circumpolar flow of air (the roaring 40s and 50s) uninterrupted by large land masses; no equivalent jet streams; and the peculiarities of the reversing ocean currents in the Pacific.
Main article: Spring Day
Albania celebrates the lunar Spring Day (Albanian: Dita e Verës or Dita e Luleve) on 14 March, and from 2004 it has been a national holiday. It is an old pagan practice, particularly popular in the city of Elbasan, central Albania.
According to some sources, Dita e Verës derives from the Arbëreshë, an Albanian community that has lived in Italy since the 15th century. On 14 March, the Arbëreshë of the Italian coast collect a tuft of grass roots and soil, bringing it home to commemorate the anniversary of their emigration from Albania. In fact, some sources date back this celebration to ancient Illyria. At that time, the feast was celebrated on 1 March, which in the Julian calendar, corresponded to the first day of the year.
Main article: Spring Carnival
The annual Spring Racing Carnival of thoroughbred horse racing events is held in Melbourne in October and November, with large crowds attending. The Melbourne Cup, held on the first Tuesday of November, is Australia's premier horse race and is recognised as a public holiday in the host city of Melbourne. It is also referred to as The race that stops a nation.
Spring season is a festive time in Bangladesh. People celebrate this season with newly reaped paddy. Villagers make various types of pitha (cakes) to entertain guests.
Main article: Victoria Day
Victoria Day in Canada is celebrated on the Monday on or before 24 May. The holiday is celebrated in honour of Queen Victoria's birthday, but is often informally considered as marking the beginning of the summer season in Canada.
In some regions, the first spring festival of the new year is carnival, 40 days before Easter.
Main article: Easter
Easter is the most important religious feast in the Christian liturgical year. Christians believe that Jesus was resurrected from the dead on the "third day" (two days after his crucifixion), and celebrate this resurrection on Easter Day, two days after Good Friday. The date of Easter varies between 22 March and 25 April in most tradition, and between 4 April and 8 May in some Eastern Christianity.
Main article: Sham el-Nessim
Sham ennisim is an Egyptian national holiday marking the beginning of spring. Ancient Egyptians (from the pharaonic period) used to celebrate the Harvest of the Wheat and modern Egyptians have continued celebrating this holiday even now. It always falls on the day after the Eastern Christian Easter (following the custom of the largest Christian denomination in the country, the Coptic Orthodox Church). Despite the Christian-related date, the holiday is celebrated by Egyptians regardless of religion.
Main article: Nowruz
The first day of spring (celebrated on the day of the astronomical vernal equinox, which usually occurs on 21 March or the previous or following day depending on where it is observed) is the beginning of the new year, Nowruz, in the Iranian calendar. Nowruz (also Nevrooz, Naw-Rúz, Norooz, Newroz, Navroj, and many other variants) which means "New Day" in Persian language, marks an important traditional holiday festival celebrated in Iran as well as in many other countries with a significant population of Persian people, such as Azerbaijan, Afghanistan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan, and by Kurdish communities in Turkey and Iraq and elsewhere.
In the ancient Jewish calendar the month of Nisan was the original first month of the year. The Jewish holiday of Passover (פסח) is celebrated in the 15th of Nisan, and is also known as "The Spring Holiday" (חג האביב). The State of Israel holds during the spring three national holidays: Yom HaZikaron LaShoah VeLaGevurah (Holocaust Memorial Day), Yom Hazikaron (Memorial Day for Israel's Fallen Soldiers) and Yom Ha-Atzmaut (Independence Day).
Main article: Holi
Holi, the festival of colours, celebrated at the end of the winter season, is the most vibrant festival of colours celebrated by Hindus in India. People throw water and apply coloured powders on each other. Holi is celebrated in Northern, in North-East and Central India, the best holi is celebrated in Mathura and Vrindavan.
Main article: vasant panchami
Vasant Panchami is celebrated in North India on the fifth day of the Indian month Magh (January–February), the first day of spring. Sankranti in Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka and Thai Pongal in Tamil Nadu are celebrated in mid-January to mark the beginning of the spring season.
Main article: Bihu
In Assam Valley, Rongali Bihu is celebrated for seven days from 13 to 19 April. This is a harvesting festival celebrated by all sections of the community, which distinguishes it from other Indian festivals that are more religious in nature.
Main article: Nowrouz
Main article: May Day
Further information: Beltane
1 May is the date of many public holidays. In many countries, May Day is synonymous with International Workers' Day, or Labour Day, which celebrates the social and economic achievements of the labour movement. As a day of celebration the holiday has ancient origins, and it can relate to many customs that have survived into modern times. Many of these customs are due to May Day being a cross-quarter day, meaning that (in the Northern Hemisphere where it is almost exclusively celebrated) it falls approximately halfway between the spring equinox and summer solstice. In the Celtic tradition, this date marked the end of spring and the beginning of summer. In line with this, Ireland celebrates St Brigid's Day (1 February) as the first day of spring.
Akitu (Sumerian Akiti-šekinku "cutting of barley", Akiti-šununum "sowing of barley", Babylonian rêš-šattim "head of the year") was a spring festival in ancient Mesopotamia. The name is from the Sumerian for "barley", originally marking two festivals celebrating the beginning of each of the two half-years of the Sumerian calendar, marking the sowing of barley in autumn and the cutting of barley in spring, in the month of Nisannu (Aries). In Babylonian religion it came to be dedicated to Marduk's victory over Tiamat.
Main article: Holi
In Nepal, people celebrate Holi, the Hindu festival of colours.
Mărțișor (Romanian pronunciation: [mərtsiʃor]) is an old Romanian celebration at the beginning of spring, on 1 March. Mărțișor, marț and mărțiguș are all names for the red and white string from which a small decoration is tied, and which is offered by people on the 1st day of March. Symbolically, it is correlated to women and to fertility as a means of life and continuity. The tradition is authentic in Romania, Moldova and all territories inhabited by Romanians and Aromanians.
Sri Lanka - Sinhala and Hindu New Year
Main article: Sinhalese New Year
Cultural anthropological history of the 'Traditional New Year', which is celebrated in the month of April, goes back to an ancient period in Sri Lankan history. Various beliefs, perhaps those associated with fertility of the harvest, gave birth to many rituals, customs, and ceremonies connected with the New Year. The advent of Buddhism in the 3rd century BC led to a re-interpretation of the existing New Year activities in a Buddhist light. The majority of the people in the country are Buddhists and Hindus, and as such, it is the Buddhist outlook that was predominant in transforming the New Year rites to what they are now.
Nowruz (Turkish:Nevruz) is mostly celebrated by Kurds in Turkey. It is actually Persian spring festival and beginning of the year. However it has a national side for Kurds (Kaveh the blacksmith) so they usually try to wear something yellow-red-and-green which come from Kurdish Flag. This day is also important for Turks. It is related with legend of Ergenekon.
Main article: Tết
Vietnamese use the traditional lunar as well as the modern solar calendar. They celebrate Tết (Vietnamese New Year) in late January or early February is also known as the beginning of spring. The lunar calendar is used mainly to divide the year into seasons for agriculture purposes. In the old days, the celebration used to last the entire month of January of the lunar calendar. Traditionally, firecrackers are used on New Year's Eve, or đêm giao thừa in Vietnamese, to scare away bad spirits and souls.