انجیر

از ویکی‌پدیا، دانشنامهٔ آزاد
پرش به: ناوبری، جستجو
فارسی English
فیکوس کریکا - انجیر
Common Fig foliage and fruit
وضعیت بقا
طبقه‌بندی علمی
فرمانرو: گیاهان
(طبقه‌بندی‌نشده): گیاهان گلدار
(طبقه‌بندی‌نشده): دولپه‌ای‌های نو
(طبقه‌بندی‌نشده): رزیدها
راسته: گل‌سرخ‌سانان
تیره: Moraceae
تبار: فیکوس
سرده: فیکوس
زیرسرده: Ficus
گونه: F. carica
نام علمی
Ficus carica
لینه
انجیر

درخت انجیر که نام علمی آن فیکوس (Ficus) می‌باشد از خانواده (Moracee) موراسه‌است و دارای ۶۰۰ گونه می‌باشد که اغلب انواع آن وحشی یا زینتی هستند مانند درخت معروف به درخت کاتوچو (فیکوس الاستیکا) که هم زینتی است و هم صنعتی. فیکوس بنگالنسیس و فیکوس رلیگیوزا انواع زینتی این گیاه می‌باشند که در تزئینات و به عنوان گیاه آپارتمانی مصرف زیاد دارند.

انواعی که در باغبانی از نظر مصرف میوه آن مورد استفاده قرار می‌گیرند عبارتند از فیکوس کاریکا، فیکوس پالماتا و فیکوس پودوکاریکا. فیکوس کاریکا همان انجیر معمولی است که به عنوان میوه مورد استفاده قرار می‌گیرد. ولی فیکوس پالماتا و فیکوس پودوکاریکا بیشتر برای تلقیح انواع انجیر خوراکی کاشته می‌شوند.

اصل و قدمت گیاه[ویرایش]

تصویری از یک درخت انجیر

موطن اصلی درخت انجیر در دنیای قدیم یعنی اروپا- آسیا در نواحی مدیترانه می‌باشد و به همین جهت آن را جزء میوه‌های مناطق نیمه گرم طبقه‌بندی می‌کنند. درخت انجیر بویژه نوع خود رو یا کوهستانی آن که به انجیر کوهی نامور است بسیار قدیمی است. یکی از رویشگاههای انجیر خودرو یا کوهی قهستان و جنوب خراسان و منطقه زیبد است. آثار این درخت در آخر عهد دوم (کرتاسه) دیده شده و در عهد چهارم در اطراف دریای مدیترانه مورد کشت قرار گرفته‌است. در مصر از ۲۸۰۰ سال قبل از میلاد مسیح کاشت درخت انجیر مرسوم بوده‌است. در حال حاضر بزرگترین انجیرستان دیم جهان در استان فارس و در شهرستان استهبان قرار دارد.

یهودیان قدیم نیز درخت انجیر را می‌شناخته‌اند و از یک نوع انجیر که فیکوس سیکوروس می‌باشد در تورات یاد شده‌است. یونانیان قدیم نوع اصلاح شده این درخت را تحت نام انجیر آتیک (Attic) می‌شناخته‌اند و رومیها این درخت را با معتقدات مذهبی خود مخلوط کرده آن را نشانه سعادت و پیشرفت و ترقی روزافزون می‌دانسته‌اند. در قرآن نیز، به این میوه سوگند یاد شده و سوره‌ای به نام این میوه نام‌گذاری شده است.

مشخصات گیاه‌شناسی[ویرایش]

میوه انجیر جمع‌آوری‌شده، کرمان، ایران

برگ درخت انجیر پنجه‌ای و دارای ۳ تا ۵ لوب می‌باشد. قسمتی که به اسم میوه انجیر معروف است و مورد تغذیه انسان قرار می‌گیرد در حقیقت میوه نیست بلکه زائده مجوفی است که گلهای انجیر به تعدادی زیاد در داخل آن قرار گرفته‌اند و مواد قندی در این زایده یا رسپتاکل جمع می‌شود. گلهای نر و گلهای ماده درخت انجیر از یکدیگر جدا ولی روی یک پایه یعنی در داخل رسپتاکل واقع شده‌اند و به عبارت دیگر درخت انجیر گیاهی است یک پایه.

اگر میوه انجیر را باز کنیم و به شکل یک سطح درآوریم گلهای نر که حامل دانه گرده هستند و در کنار و به طرف خارج صفحه واقع شده و گلهای ماده که حامل تخمدان و در صورت تلقیح شدن حامل بذر خواهند بود در وسط صفحه قرار دارند. تلقیح گلهای ماده انجیر بوسیله حشرات مختلف که مهمترین آنها حشره‌ای بسیار کوچک از خانواده کالسیدیده می‌باشد انجام می‌گیرد.

آب و هوای مطلوب برای درخت انجیر[ویرایش]

به همان اندازه که درخت انجیر به گرمای زیاد مقاوم است نسبت به سرما مخصوصا در دوره جوانی حساس است و سرما یک عامل محدود کننده در کاشت این درخت می‌باشد. اثر گرما و رطوبت در میوه انجیر نسبت به نوع مصرف میوه متفاوت است. انجیرهایی که برای کنسرو و یا در شیرینی‌پزی مصرف می‌شود در هوای مرطوب محصول مرغوب‌تری می‌دهد تا در هوای گرم و خشک و برعکس میوه درختان انجیری که در هوای خشک و نسبتاً گرم کاشته شده‌اند برای تهیه انجیر خشک مرغوب‌تر است تا آنهای در هوای مرطوب عمل آمده‌اند.

باران در موقع تلقیح بسیار مضر است و مقدار محصول را به مقدار قابل توجهی کم می‌کند. در نواحی مرطوب میوه درشت می‌شود و دم آن طویل می‌گردد ولی مقدار شیرینی میوه کم می‌شود در هوای خشک و گرم دم میوه کوتاه شده گاهی به کلی از بین می‌رود اما اندازه میوه کوچک و مقدار شیرینی آن زیاد است.

هرس درخت انجیر[ویرایش]

مانند سایر گیاهان هرس این درختان برای سلامتی آن‌ها لازم است. این سبب بزرگ‌تر شدن میوه می‌شود. درخت انجیر را در فصل پاییز بعد از اولین سرمازدگی هرس کنید. گیاهان را به منظور رشد بیش‌تر و کنترل اندازه هرس کنید.[۱]

خاک مطلوب درخت انجیر[ویرایش]

درخت انجیر را در انواع مختلف خاک از شنی سبک تا رسی سخت می‌توان کاشت. در اراضی شنی سبک خطر حمله نماتود بسیار زیاد است. بهترین خاک برای کاشت این درخت اراضی لیمونی است. در این نوع اراضی میوه دادن درخت به علت رشد زیاد شاخ و برگ دو یا سه سال به تاخیر می‌افتد.

ازدیاد درخت انجیر[ویرایش]

درخت انجیر را با انواع مختلف وروش تکثیر نباتات چه جنسی و چه غیر جنسی می‌توان زیاد کرد. در ازدیاد بوسیله بذر هیچ‌گاه درخت جدید شبیه به پایه مادری نخواهد بود و به همین جهت نیز جز برای تحقیقات علمی و پیدا کردن انواع جدید از این طرز ازدیاد استفاده نمی‌کنند. برای ازدیاد درخت انجیر از نظر ایجاد باغ به منظور بهره‌برداری فقط از طرق مختلف غیر جنسی استفاده می‌شود.

طرق مختلف غیر جنسی که بیشتر در تکثیر درخت انجیر بکار می‌روند عبارتند از: قلمه، پاجوش، خواباندن شاخه و پیوند. بین این طرق، ازدیاد بوسیله قلمه بیش از سایر روشها مورد استفاده قرار می‌گیرد. در ازدیاد درخت انجیر بوسیله قلمه باید از درخت سالم و قوی و شاخه رسیده انتخاب و تهیه شود.

آفات و بیماریهای درخت انجیر[ویرایش]

از انواع آفات درخت انجیر: سیمتیس نمورانا، هسپروفانس گریزئوس، سفیدک انجیر، موزائیک انجیر، شکاف خوردن میوه انجیر و بیماری ترشیدگی میوه انجیر.

خواص دارویی انجیر[ویرایش]

بر اساس تحقیقات انجام شده، برگهای درخت انجیر بدلیل داشتن خصوصیات مدر بودن، تسکین دهندگی و دافع کرم روده مورد استفاده قرار گرفته و دم کرده برگ درخت انجیر مسکن بوده و برای معالجه سرفه تجویز شده‌است. میوه انجیر برای نرم کردن سینه و روده و دارای خاصیت ویژه‌ای می‌باشد. انجیر تازه منبع غنی بتاکاروتن و ویتامین ث است که در جلوگیری از ابتلا به سرطان کاربرد دارند. جوشانده انجیر در التهاب دستگاه تنفسی و غرغره کردن آن برای گلو درد و سرماخوردگی مفید بوده و عفونت‌های لثه را نیز درمان می‌کند. خوردن انجیر تازه و خشک سبب لینت مزاج و یبوست مزمن را درمان می‌کند و در طب جدید شربتی برای رفع بیماریهای یبوست کودکان تهیه شده‌است.

جستجو در ویکی‌انبار در ویکی‌انبار پرونده‌هایی دربارهٔ انجیر موجود است.


ارزش غذایی[ویرایش]

Figs, dried, uncooked
مواد مغذی در هر ۱۰۰ گرم (۳٫۵ اونس)
انرژی ۱٬۰۴۱ کیلوژول (۲۴۹ کیلوکالری)
کربوهیدرات‌ها ۶۳٫۸۷ g
قندها ۴۷٫۹۲ g
فیبر ۹٫۸ g
چربی ۰٫۹۳ g
پروتئین ۳٫۳ g
تیامین (ویتامین B۱) ۰٫۰۸۵ میلی‌گرم (۷٪)
ریبوفلاوین (ویتامین B۲) ۰٫۰۸۲ میلی‌گرم (۵٪)
نیاسین (ویتامین B۳) ۰٫۶۱۹ میلی‌گرم (۴٪)
ویتامین ب۵ (B5) ۰٫۴۳۴ میلی‌گرم (۹٪)
ویتامین ب۶ ۰٫۱۰۶ میلی‌گرم (۸٪)
اسید فولیک (ویتامین B9) ۹ میکروگرم (۲٪)
ویتامین C ۱٫۲ میلی‌گرم (۲٪)
ویتامین K ۱۵٫۶ میکروگرم (۱۵٪)
کلسیم ۱۶۲ میلی‌گرم (۱۶٪)
آهن ۲٫۰۳ میلی‌گرم (۱۶٪)
منیزیوم ۶۸ میلی‌گرم (۱۸٪)
منگنز ۰٫۵۱ میلی‌گرم (۲۶٪)
فسفر ۶۷ میلی‌گرم (۱۰٪)
پتاسیم ۶۸۰ میلی‌گرم (۱۴٪)
سدیم ۱۰ میلی‌گرم (۰٪)
روی ۰٫۵۵ میلی‌گرم (۶٪)
Link to USDA Database entry
درصدها نسبی‌اند
منبع: پایگاه اطلاعاتی مواد غذایی آمریکا

جستارهای وابسته[ویرایش]

منابع[ویرایش]

  1. [۱]، سایت پارسه گرد

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Ficus carica – Common fig
58571 Ficus carica L.jpg
Drawing of the common fig foliage and fruit
Conservation status
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Rosids
Order: Rosales
Family: Moraceae
Tribe: Ficeae
Genus: Ficus
Subgenus: Ficus
Species: F. carica
Binomial name
Ficus carica
L.

The common fig (Ficus carica) is a species of flowering plant in the genus Ficus, from the family Moraceae, known as the common fig (or just the fig), انجیر (Persian), அத்தி (Tamil), anjeer (Hindi), dumur (Bengali), תאנה (Hebrew) and تين (Arabic). It is the source of the fruit also called the fig, and as such is an important crop in those areas where it is grown commercially. Native to the Middle East and western Asia, it has been sought out and cultivated since ancient times, and is now widely grown throughout the temperate world, both for its fruit and as an ornamental plant.[1][2]

Description

It is a gynodioecious (functionally dioecious),[3] deciduous tree or large shrub, growing to a height of 7–10 metres (23–33 ft), with smooth white bark. Its fragrant leaves are 12–25 centimetres (4.7–9.8 in) long and 10–18 centimetres (3.9–7.1 in) across, and deeply lobed with three or five lobes. The complex inflorescence consists of a hollow fleshy structure called the syconium, which is lined with numerous unisexual flowers. The flower itself is not visible outwardly, as it blooms inside the infructescence. Although commonly referred to as a fruit, the fig is actually the infructescence or scion of the tree, known as a false fruit or multiple fruit, in which the flowers and seeds are borne. It is a hollow-ended stem containing many flowers. The small orifice (ostiole) visible on the middle of the fruit is a narrow passage, which allows the specialized fig wasp Blastophaga psenes to enter the fruit and pollinate the flower, whereafter the fruit grows seeds. See Ficus: Fig pollination and fig fruit.

The edible fruit consists of the mature syconium containing numerous one-seeded fruits (druplets).[3] The fruit is 3–5 centimetres (1.2–2.0 in) long, with a green skin, sometimes ripening towards purple or brown. Ficus carica has milky sap (laticifer). The sap of the fig's green parts is an irritant to human skin.[4]

Habitat

Variegated fig
Ficus bud.JPG
Leaves and immature fruit of common fig

The common fig tree has been cultivated since ancient times and grows wild in dry and sunny areas, with deep and fresh soil; also in rocky areas, from sea level to 1,700 meters. It prefers light and medium soils, requires well-drained soil, and can grow in nutritionally poor soil. Like all fig trees, Ficus carica requires wasp pollination of a particular species of wasp (Blastophaga psenes) to produce seeds. The plant can tolerate seasonal drought, and the Middle Eastern and Mediterranean climate is especially suitable for the plant. Situated in a favorable habitat, old specimens when mature can reach a considerable size and form a large dense shade tree. Its aggressive root system precludes its use in many urban areas of cities, but in nature helps the plant to take root in the most inhospitable areas. Common fig tree is mostly a phreatophyte that lives in areas with standing or running water, grows well in the valleys of the rivers and ravines saving no water, having strong need of water that is extracted from the ground. The deep-rooted plant searches groundwater, in aquifers, ravines, or cracks in the rocks. The fig tree, with the water, cools the environment in hot places, creating a fresh and pleasant habitat for many animals that take shelter in its shade in the times of intense heat.

Ecology

Ficus carica is dispersed by birds and mammals that scatter their seeds in droppings. Fig fruit is an important food source for much of the fauna in some areas, and the tree owes its expansion to those that feed on its fruit. The common fig tree also sprouts from the root and stolon issues.

The infructescence is pollinated by a symbiosis with a kind of fig wasp (Blastophaga psenes). The fertilized female wasp enters the fig through the scion, which is a tiny hole in the crown (the ostiole). She crawls on the inflorescence inside the fig and pollinates some of the female flowers. She lays her eggs inside some of the flowers and dies. After weeks of development in their galls, the male wasps emerge before females through holes they produce by chewing the galls. The male wasps then fertilize the females by depositing semen in the hole in the gall. The males later return to the females and enlarge the holes to enable the females to emerge. Then some males enlarge holes in the scion, which enables females to disperse after collecting pollen from the developed male flowers. Females have a short time (<48 hours) to find another fig tree with receptive scions to spread the pollen, assist the tree in reproduction, and lay their own eggs to start a new cycle.

History

The edible fig is one of the first plants that was cultivated by humans. Nine subfossil figs of a parthenocarpic (and therefore sterile) type dating to about 9400–9200 BC were found in the early Neolithic village Gilgal I (in the Jordan Valley, 13 km north of Jericho). The find predates the domestication of wheat, barley, and legumes, and may thus be the first known instance of agriculture. It is proposed that this sterile but gustatively desirable type was planted and cultivated intentionally, one thousand years before the next crops were domesticated (wheat and rye).[5]

Figs were also a common food source for the Romans. Cato the Elder, in his De Agri Cultura, lists several strains of figs grown at the time he wrote his handbook: the Mariscan, African, Herculanean, Saguntine, and the black Tellanian (De agri cultura, ch. 8). The fruits were used, among other things, to fatten geese for the production of a precursor of foie gras.

It was cultivated from Afghanistan to Portugal, also grown in Pithoragarh in the Kumaon hills of India. From the 15th century onwards, it was grown in areas including Northern Europe and the New World.[1] In the 16th century, Cardinal Reginald Pole introduced fig trees to Lambeth Palace in London.

Cultivation

Small fig tree

The common fig is grown for its edible fruit throughout the temperate world. It is also grown as an ornamental tree, and the cultivar 'Brown Turkey' has gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit.[6]

Figs can be found in continental climates with hot summers as far north as Hungary and Moravia, and can be harvested up to four times per year. Thousands of cultivars, most named, have been developed as human migration brought the fig to many places outside its natural range.

Two crops of figs are potentially produced each year.[7] The first or breba crop develops in the spring on last year's shoot growth. In contrast, the main fig crop develops on the current year's shoot growth and ripens in the late summer or fall. The main crop is generally superior in both quantity and quality to the breba crop. However, some cultivars produce good breba crops (e.g., 'Black Mission', 'Croisic', and 'Ventura').

There are basically three types of edible figs:[8]

  • Persistent (or common) figs have all female flowers that do not need pollination for fruiting; the fruit can develop through parthenocarpic means. This is a popular horticulture fig for home gardeners. Dottato (Kadota), Black Mission, Brown Turkey, Brunswick, and Celeste are some representative cultivars.
  • Caducous (or Smyrna) figs require cross pollination by the fig wasp with pollen from caprifigs for the fruit to mature. If not pollinated the immature fruits drop. Some cultivars are Smyrne (Lob Incir in Turkey) - (Calimyrna in the Great Central Valley USA), Marabout, Inchàrio, and Zidi.
  • Intermediate (or San Pedro) figs set an unpollinated breba crop, but need pollination for the later main crop. Examples are Lampeira, King, and San Pedro.

The fig likes dry sunny sites, the soil dry or drained. Excessive growth has to be limited to promote the fruiting. It thrives in both sandy and rocky soil. As the sun is really important it is better to avoid shades. Some varieties are more adapted to harsh and wet climates.

Propagation

Figs plants are easy to propagate through several methods. Propagation using seeds is not the preferred method since vegetative methods exist that are quicker and more reliable, that is, they do not yield the inedible caprifigs. However, those desiring to can plant seeds of dried figs with moist sphagnum moss or other media in a zip lock bag and expect germination in a few weeks to several months. The tiny plants can be transplanted out little by little once the leaves open, and despite the tiny initial size can grow to 1 foot (30 cm) or more within one year from planting seeds.

Main vegetative propagation, or spring propagation: before the tree starts growth, cut 15–25 cm (6–10 inch) shoots that have healthy buds at their ends, and set into a moist mix of soil and peat-moss located in shade in first time, buried 3/4 of their length. Larger diameter stems are better – intermediate cuttings on branches can be done too (up to diam. 3/4") – but in this case the upper side must be cut inclined, thus marking the upper part, to avoid planting upside-down. Grow one year in a nursery, in a pot or in-ground spaced one foot apart, till winter. Before the plant starts growth, plant it in the desired final location.

For propagation in the mid-summer months, air layer new growth in August (mid-summer) or insert hardened off 15–25 cm (6-10 inches) shoots into moist perlite or a sandy soil mix, keeping the cuttings shaded until new growth begins; then gradually move them into full sun. For spring propagation, before the tree starts growth, cut 15–25 cm (6-10 inches) shoots that have healthy buds at their ends, and set into a moist perlite and/or sandy soil mix located in the shade. Once the cuttings start to produce leaves, bury them up to the bottom leaf to give the plant a good start in the desired location.

An alternative propagation method is bending over a taller branch, scratching the bark to reveal the green inner bark, then pinning the scratched area tightly to the ground. Within a few weeks, roots will develop and the branch can be clipped from the mother plant and transplanted where desired.

Cultivars

  • Alma
  • Brown Turkey
  • Celeste
  • Desert King
  • Ealy Violet
  • Flanders
  • Genao
  • hardy Chicago
  • Italian White
  • Italian Black
  • Italian Honey
  • Jurupa
  • King
  • Larme de Jaune
  • Marseilles vs Black
  • Negra
  • Orourke
  • Pops Purple
  • Quantico
  • Smith
  • Texas Everbearing
  • Violette de Bordeaux
  • Wuhan
  • Yede Vern
  • Zidi
  • Kadota: used in fig rolls, dries well
  • Marseilles: also known as Blanch
  • Mission: black, sweet, commonly dried
  • Timla in Kumaon

Mountain fig

Anjeer Kohi
Mountain fig tree in Zibad

Mountain fig or rock fig (called "Anjeer Kohi", انجیر کوهی, in Persian) is a wild fig, naturally growing in the rocky mountainous area of the Kavir desert of Iran, especially in the Khorasan Mountains of Kohestan.

Mountain fig

The only difference between the mountain fig and other figs is its tolerance of dry and cold climates. It usually does not need any irrigation and is able to survive extremely dry weather and temperatures of −40 °C (−40 °F). The most productive and the oldest mountain fig trees are located in the Zibad mountains.

Culinary use

Figs, dried, uncooked
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy 1,041 kJ (249 kcal)
63.87 g
Sugars 47.92 g
Dietary fiber 9.8 g
0.93 g
3.3 g
Vitamins
Thiamine (B1)
(7%)
0.085 mg
Riboflavin (B2)
(7%)
0.082 mg
Niacin (B3)
(4%)
0.619 mg
(9%)
0.434 mg
Vitamin B6
(8%)
0.106 mg
Folate (B9)
(2%)
9 μg
Choline
(3%)
15.8 mg
Vitamin C
(1%)
1.2 mg
Vitamin K
(15%)
15.6 μg
Trace metals
Calcium
(16%)
162 mg
Iron
(16%)
2.03 mg
Magnesium
(19%)
68 mg
Manganese
(24%)
0.51 mg
Phosphorus
(10%)
67 mg
Potassium
(14%)
680 mg
Sodium
(1%)
10 mg
Zinc
(6%)
0.55 mg

Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient Database

Figs can be eaten fresh or dried, and used in jam-making. Most commercial production is in dried or otherwise processed forms, since the ripe fruit does not transport well, and once picked does not keep well. The widely produced fig newton or fig roll is a biscuit (cookie) with a filling made from figs.

Nutrition

"Schiocca": calabrian dried figs

Figs are among the richest plant sources of calcium and fiber. According to USDA data for the Mission variety, dried figs are richest in fiber, copper, manganese, magnesium, potassium, calcium, and vitamin K, relative to human needs. They have smaller amounts of many other nutrients. Figs have a laxative effect and contain many antioxidants. They are a good source of flavonoids and polyphenols[9] including gallic acid, chlorogenic acid, syringic acid, (+)-catechin, (−)-epicatechin and rutin.[10] In one study, a 40-gram portion of dried figs (two medium size figs) produced a significant increase in plasma antioxidant capacity.[11]

Cultural aspects

Fresh figs cut open showing the flesh and seeds inside

In the Book of Genesis in the Bible, Adam and Eve clad themselves with fig leaves (Genesis 3:7) after eating the "forbidden fruit" from the Tree of Knowledge of Good and Evil. Likewise, fig leaves, or depictions of fig leaves, have long been used to cover the genitals of nude figures in painting and sculpture. Art collectors and exhibitors often added these depictions long after the original work was completed. The use of the fig leaf as a protector of modesty or shield of some kind has entered the language.

The Book of Deuteronomy specifies the fig as one of the Seven Species (Deuteronomy 8:7-8), describing the fertility of the land of Canaan. This is a set of seven plants indigenous to the Middle East that together can provide food all year round. The list is organized by date of harvest, with the fig being fourth due to its main crop ripening during summer.

Also in the Bible (Matthew 21:18–22 and Mark 11:12–14, 19–21) is a story of Jesus finding a fig tree when he was hungry; the tree only had leaves on it, but no fruit. Jesus, then, curses the fig tree, which withers.

The biblical quote "each man under his own vine and fig tree" (1 Kings 4:25) has been used to denote peace and prosperity. It was commonly quoted to refer to the life that would be led by settlers in the American West, and was used by Theodor Herzl in his depiction of the future Jewish Homeland: "We are a commonwealth. In form it is new, but in purpose very ancient. Our aim is mentioned in the First Book of Kings: 'Judah and Israel shall dwell securely, each man under his own vine and fig tree, from Dan to Beersheba".[12] US President George Washington, writing in 1790 to the Touro Synagogue of Newport, Rhode Island, extended the metaphor to denote the equality of all Americans regardless of faith.[13]

Buddha achieved enlightenment under the bodhi tree, a large and old sacred fig tree (Ficus religiosa, or Pipal).

Sura 95 of the Qur'an is named al-Tīn (Arabic for "The Fig"), as it opens with the oath "By the fig and the olive." The fruit is also mentioned elsewhere in the Qur'an. Within the Hadith, Sahih al-Bukhari records Prophet Muhammad stating: "If I had to mention a fruit that descended from paradise, I would say this is it because the paradisiacal fruits do not have pits...eat from these fruits for they prevent hemorrhoids, prevent piles and help gout."[14]

In Greek mythology, the god Apollo sends a crow to collect water from a stream for him. The crow sees a fig tree and waits for the figs to ripen, tempted by the fruit. He knows that he is late and that his tardiness will be punished, so he gets a snake from the stream and collects the water. He presents Apollo with the water and uses the snake as an excuse. Apollo sees through the crow's lie and throws the crow, goblet, and snake into the sky where they form the constellations Hydra, Crater, and Corvus.

In Aristophanes' Lysistrata one of the women boasts about the "curriculum" of initiation rites she went through to become an adult woman (Lys. 641–7). As her final accomplishment before marriage, when she was already a fair girl, she bore the basket as a kanephoros, wearing a necklace of dried figs.[15]

Top Fig Producing Countries - 2012
(in metric tonnes)
Rank Country Production
(Tonnes)
1  Turkey 274,535
2  Egypt 171,062
3  Algeria 110,058
4  Morocco 102,694
5  Iran 78,000
6  Syria 41,224
7  United States 35,072
8  Brazil 28,010
9  Albania 27,255
10  Tunisia 25,000
World 1,031,391
Source: UN Food & Agriculture Organization [16]

In the course of his campaign to persuade the Roman Republic to pursue a third Punic War, Cato the Elder produced before the Senate a handful of fresh figs, said to be from Carthage. This showed its proximity to Rome (and hence the threat), and also accused the Senate of weakness and effeminacy: figs were associated with femininity, owing to the appearance of the inside of the fruit.[17]

The word "sycophant" comes from the Greek word sykophantes, meaning"one who shows the fig". "Showing the fig" was a vulgar gesture made with the hand.[18]

Dried figs

The fig tree is sacred to Dionysus Sukites (Συκίτης).

Since the flower is invisible, there are various idioms related to it in languages around the world. In a Bengali idiom as used in tumi yēna ḍumurēr phul hay.ē gēlē (তুমি যেন ডুমুরের ফুল হয়ে গেলে), i.e., 'you have become (invisible like) the fig flower (doomurer phool)'. The derisive English idiom I don't care a fig probably originates from the abundance of this fruit.[original research?] There is a Hindi idiom related to flower of fig tree, गूलर का फूल (gūlar kā phūl i.e. flower of fig) means something that just would not ever see i.e. rare of the rarest[19] In Awadh region of Uttar Pradesh state of India apart from standard Hindi idiom a variant is also used; in the region it is assumed that if something or work or job contains (or is contaminated by) flower of fig it will not get finished e.g. this work contains fig flower i.e. it is not getting completed by any means.

Gular ka phool (flower of fig) is a collection of poetry in written in Hindi by Rajiv Kumar Trigarti.[20]

There is also a poem in Telugu written by Yogi Vemana, which says "Medi pandu chuda melimayyi undunu, potta vippi chuda purugulundunu", It means—"The fig fruit looks harmless but once you open you find tiny insects [refers to the fig wasp] in there". The phrase is synonymous to an English phrase—"Don't judge a book by its cover".

Picture gallery

Leaf & Fruit Fruit The Expulsion Cross-section

Common fig - leaves and green figs.jpg

Ficus carica0.jpg

Masaccio-TheExpulsionOfAdamAndEveFromEden-Restoration.jpg

Feige-Schnitt.jpg

Leaves and green fruit on common fig tree

Common fig fruit

The Expulsion from the Garden of Edenfresco depicting a distressed Adam and Eve, with and without fig leaves, by Tommaso Masaccio, 1426–27

Cutaway-section displaying the fruit anatomy

See also

Footnotes

  1. ^ a b The Fig: its History, Culture, and Curing, Gustavus A. Eisen, Washington, Govt. print. off., 1901
  2. ^ RHS A-Z encyclopedia of garden plants. United Kingdom: Dorling Kindersley. 2008. p. 1136. ISBN 1405332964. 
  3. ^ a b Wayne's Word: Sex Determination & Life Cycle in Ficus carica
  4. ^ Purdue University: Horticulture & Landscape Architecture. Fig, Ficus carica.
  5. ^ Kislev et al. (2006a, b), Lev-Yadun et al. (2006)
  6. ^ "RHS Plant Selector - Ficus carica 'Brown Turkey'". Retrieved 20 June 2013. 
  7. ^ California Rare Fruit Growers: Fig
  8. ^ North American Fruit Explorers: Figs.
  9. ^ Vinson (1999)
  10. ^ Phenolic acids and flavonoids of fig fruit (Ficus carica L.) in the northern Mediterranean region. Robert Veberic, Mateja Colaric and Franci Stampar, Food Chemistry, Volume 106, Issue 1, 1 January 2008, pages 153–157, doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2007.05.061
  11. ^ Vinson et al. (2005)
  12. ^ Old New Land by Theodor Herzl [1] Old New Land
  13. ^ http://www.tourosynagogue.org/index.php/history-learning/gw-letter
  14. ^ "Foods of the prophet". IslamOnline. 
  15. ^ κἀκανηφόρουν ποτ’ οὖσα παῖς καλὴ ‘χους’ / ἰσχάδων ὁρμαθόν.
  16. ^ "Production of Fig by countries". UN Food & Agriculture Organization. 2011. Retrieved 2013-08-23. 
  17. ^ "BBC iPlayer - In our time: the destruction of Carthage". Retrieved 20 June 2013. 
  18. ^ [2] Online Etymology Dictionary
  19. ^ बालुरघाट में दिखा गूलर का विस्मयकारी फूल, Sep 20, 11:39 pm (Hindi version), (Translated version)
  20. ^ Gular ka phool by Rajiv Kumar Trigarti

References

External links