ابوذر غفاری

از ویکی‌پدیا، دانشنامهٔ آزاد
پرش به: ناوبری، جستجو
فارسی English
جستجو در ویکی‌گفتاورد مجموعه‌ای از گفتاوردهای مربوط به ابوذر غفاری در ویکی‌گفتاورد موجود است.

ابوذر غِفاری یا جُندب بن جُناده[۱] یکی از صحابیون محمد است و عمدتا با نام جندب بن جناده شناخته می شود. البته نام های دیگری هم برایش ذکر شده است.[۲]

ابوذر پیش از اسلام آوردن[ویرایش]

گفته می شود که وی پیش از مسلمان شدن، یکتا پرست بوده است.[۲]

اسلام آوردن ابوذر[ویرایش]

وقتی اخبار محمد به گوشش رسید، برادرش اُنيس را به مکه فرستاد تا در مورد دین محمد تحقیق کند. اما اطلاعاتی که برادرش برایش آورد، وی را ارضا نکرد و شخصا به مکه رفت. یک روایت می گوید که وی در کعبه با محمد و ابوبکر دیدار کرد و دیگر روایت می گوید که علی وی را پنهانی سوی محمد برد. او در جا اسلام آورد. دانشنامه اسلام بر این باور است که به طور شگفت انگیزی ادعا شده که ابوذر از پنجمین (یا حتی چهارمین) اسلام آورندگان است. او به منزلش رفت و بعد از غزوه خندق در سال ۵ هجری/۶۲۷ میلادی، به مدینه آمد. [۲]

دوران سه خلیفه اول[ویرایش]

وی پس از آن در شام زندگی می کرد تا اینکه به خاطر شکایتی که معاویه از وی کرده بود، عثمان وی را به مدینه احضار کرد. وی به ربذه فرستاده شد و در سال ۳۱ یا ۳۲ هجری/۳-۶۵۲ میلادی در آن جا درگذشت.[۲]

ویژگی های ابوذر[ویرایش]

در منابع به خضوع و ساده زیستی ابوذر اشاره شده و این مهم وی را به عیسی بن مریم همانند کرده است. او به دین اسلام پایبند بود و مشتاق به فراگیری علم و گفته می شود که در علوم دین با عبدالله بن مسعود برابری می کرد. ابوذر ۲۸۱ حدیث نقل کرده که صحیح بخاری و صحیح مسلم، ۳۱ عدد از آنان را روایت کرده اند.[۲]

پانویس[ویرایش]

منابع[ویرایش]

جستارهای وابسته[ویرایش]

جستجو در ویکی‌گفتاورد مجموعه‌ای از گفتاوردهای مربوط به ابوذر غفاری در ویکی‌گفتاورد موجود است.
Abu Dhar
Arabic: أبو ذر
Born Hejaz
Died 652 AD
Resting place
al-Rabadha, Hejaz
Ethnicity Hejazi Arab
Known for Being a loyal companion of Prophet Muhammad and Imam Ali[1][2]
Title
  • al-Ghifari Arabic: الغفاري
  • al-Kinani Arabic: الكناني
Children Dhar (daughter)

Abū Dhar al-Ghifari al-Kinani ( أبو ذر الغفاري الكناني )Jundub ibn Junādah ibn Sufian (جُندب بن جَنادة), was the fourth or fifth person converting to Islam. He belonged to the Banu Ghifar, the Kinanah tribe. No date of birth is known. He died in 652 CE, at al-Rabadha, in the desert east of Medina.

Abu Dhar is remembered for his strict piety and also his opposition to Muawiyah I during the caliph Uthman ibn Affan era. He is venerated by Shia Muslims as one of The Four Companions, early Muslims who were followers (Shi'a) of Ali (Ali ibn Abi Talib).

He was one of the Muhajirun.[3] He was regarded by many, including Ali Shariati, as the first Islamic socialist or the first socialist altogether, having first been referred to as such by the Arab scholar Ahmad Rida in 1910.

Early life

Little is known of his life before his conversion to Islam from Judiasm. He was born to the Ghifar clan, found to the western south of Medina.[4] Abu Dhar was apparently typical of the early converts to Islam, described by Ibn Shihab al-Zuhri as "young men and weak people".[5] They were a branch of the Banu Kinanah tribe. The Jews of Banu Quraizah were also part of Kinanah.

Popular accounts of Abu Dhar[6] say that his tribe lived by pillaging caravans, but that he preferred to live a poor but honest life as a shepherd. Having heard the supposition that a new prophet had arisen in Mecca, Abu Dhar and his brother travelled to Mecca to find the prophet. The young seeker converted instantly and rushed out to declare his new faith in front of the Kaaba, which at that time was a pagan temple. He was beaten for his religious belief. He did this three days in a row, after which the Prophet Muhammed told him to return to his clan, where he taught his people about Islam. He and his tribe then joined Muhammad after the Hijra, or migration to Medina in 622 CE.

This seems to be a simplified account of stories reported in these hadiths, 31:6049, 31:6048 and 31:6046.

According to the early Islamic historian Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari, Abu Dhar claimed to have been the fourth or fifth convert to Islam. However, Saad bin Abe Waqqas made the same claim. While the exact order of conversion may never be established, no one doubts that he was a very early convert.

After Muhammad's death

Abu Dhar had begun his agitation in Medina after Uthman had given 500,000 dirhams to Marwan I, 300,000 to al-Harith b. al-Hakam, and 100,000 to the Medinan Zayd ibn Thabit from the khums of the booty seized in Ifriquiya in 27/647. He then quoted relevant Qur'anic passages threatening the horders (sic) of riches with hell-fire. Marwan complained to Uthman, who sent his servant Natil to warn Abu Dhar, but to no avail. Uthman displayed patience for some time until, in the presence of the caliph, Abu Dhar launched an angry verbal attack on Ka'ab al-Ahbar, who had backed Uthman's free use of public money. Uthman now chided Abu Dhar and sent him to Damascus.[7]

There is a tradition that Muhammad predicted this sad end, saying, "May Allah have mercy upon Abu Dharr! Lonely will he live, lonely will he die and lonely will he be resurrected[citation needed]".

Sunni view

Many hadith, oral traditions, are traced to Abu Dhar. He is respected as an early and observant Muslim, and a man who was honest and direct to a fault. He was, according to the Sunni tradition, a rough, unlettered Beduin who held no high office, but who served the Muslim community, the Ummah, with everything he had to give.

During the caliphate of Uthman, he stayed in Damascus and witnessed Muslims deviating from Islam, going after worldly pleasures and desires.

He was saddened and repelled by this. So Uthman invited him to come to Madinah. where he was also hurt by people's pursuit of worldly goods and pleasures.

Al-Rabathah

Abu Dhar then asked Uthman to go to al-Rabathah, a small village eastern Madinah. Uthman approved his request. Abu Dhar stayed there away from people, holding on to the traditions (sunnah) of Muhammad and his companions.

A man visited him once and when he found his house almost bare, he asked Abu Dhar: "Where are your possessions?"

Abu Dhar said: "We have a house yonder (meaning the Hereafter), to which we send the best of our possessions."

The man understood what Abu Dhar meant and said: "But you must have some possessions so long as you are in this abode."

"The owner of this abode will not leave us in it," replied Abu Dharr.

Also, when the Prince (Amir) of Syria sent Abu Dhar three hundred dinars to meet his needs, he returned the money saying, "Does not the Amir find a servant more deserving of it than I?"

Abu Dhar continued in his simple life, and dedicated himself to Allah only until he died, in 32 A.H.

Shi'a view

Aba Dhar is considered one of the greatest and most loyal sahaba, along with Salman, Miqdad, and Ammar ibn Yasser.

Imam Ali advanced to see him off. He said:

Abu Dhar, you've become very angry for Allah. The people are worried about their religion, and you are worried about your religion. So, leave what they are worried about in your hands and escape from them with what you're worried about. They're in need of what you've prevented them from. And you're in no need of what they've prevented you from. Tomorrow you'll know who will be the winner. Abu Dhar, nothing amuses you but the truth and nothing annoys you but the untruth.

Abu Dhar, his wife and his daughter went to al-Rabathah Desert. He was recalling our Master Muhammad's words: Abu Dhar, may Allah have mercy upon you. You'll live alone, die alone, rise from the dead alone and enter Paradise alone. Prophet Mohammad said about him " Aba Dhar is like Issa/Jesus (AS) of my nation in his "zohod" and "waraa"

Hadiths mentioning his virtuous status

Muhammad is reported to have said, "Neither has the sky shaded one more truthful and honest than Abu Dhar nor has the earth had anyone walk over it like him. (In these matters) he is like Isa bin Maryam." (From Tirmidhi.)

Muhammad also said, "Abu Dhar walks on earth with the piety of Isa bin Maryam (Jesus son of Mary.)" (From Tirmidhi.)

During the Battle of Tabouk, Abu Dhar was left behind because his camel was ill or too weak. So he alighted from it and, placing the pack on his back, walked to the rest of the army. Muhammad saw him and exclaimed, "May Allah have Mercy on Abu Dhar!." He then said, "He spends his life all alone. Death will single him out and on the Day of Resurrection, he will stand up all alone!"

See also

Books

  • Madelung, Wilferd -- Succession to Muhammad, Cambridge University Press, 1997
  • Watt, Montgomery -- Muhammad at Mecca, Oxford University Press, 1953
  • Watt, Montgomery -- Muhammad at Medina, Oxford University Press, 1956

References

  1. ^ The Islamic Law of Personal Status, edited by Jamal J. Nasir, Pg. 11-12
  2. ^ Early Shi'i Thought: The Teachings of Imam Muhammad Al-Baqir, By Arzina R. Lalani, pg. 26
  3. ^ The Mirror of all the Prophets as Shown by The Hadith of Similitude
  4. ^ Watt, Muhammad at Medina, 1956, p. 81
  5. ^ cited in Watt, Muhammad at Mecca, 1953, p. 87
  6. ^ Islam Online
  7. ^ Madelung, Succession to Muhammad, 1997, p. 84

External links

Shi'a links
Sunni links