ابوذر غِفاری یکی از صحابیون محمد است و عمدتا با نام جندب بن جناده شناخته می شود. البته نام های دیگری هم برایش ذکر شده است.
ابوذر پیش از اسلام آوردن [ویرایش]
ابوذر در سال 58قبل از هجرت در یثرب از قبیله ی بنی غفار زاده شد.پدرش جناده بن سفیان بن عبید بن حرام و مادرش رمله بنت وقیعه بن حرام بن غفار نام داشت.گفته می شود که وی پیش از مسلمان شدن، یکتا پرست بوده است و از پرستش بت قبیله ی خویش،مناة،امتناع جسته است.
اسلام آوردن ابوذر [ویرایش]
وقتی اخبار محمد به گوشش رسید، برادرش را به مکه فرستاد تا در مورد دین محمد تحقیق کند. اما اطلاعاتی که برادرش برایش آورد، وی را ارضا نکرد و شخصا به مکه رفت. یک روایت می گوید که وی در کعبه با محمد و ابوبکر دیدار کرد و دیگر روایت می گوید که علی وی را پنهانی سوی محمد برد. او در جا اسلام آورد. دانشنامه اسلام بر این باور است که به طور شگفت انگیزی ادعا شده که ابوذر از پنجمین (یا حتی چهارمین) اسلام آورندگان است. او به منزلش رفت و بعد از غزوه خندق در سال ۵ هجری/۶۲۷ میلادی، به مدینه آمد. 
دوران سه خلیفه اول [ویرایش]
وی پس از آن در شام زندگی می کرد تا اینکه به خاطر شکایتی که معاویه از وی کرده بود، عثمان وی را به مدینه احضار کرد. وی به ربذه فرستاده شد و در سال ۳۲ هجری/۶۵۲ میلادی در آن جا درگذشت.
ویژگی های ابوذر [ویرایش]
در منابع به خضوع و ساده زیستی ابوذر اشاره شده و این مهم وی را به عیسی بن مریم همانند کرده است. او به دین اسلام پایبند بود و مشتاق به فراگیری علم و گفته می شود که در علوم دین با عبدالله بن مسعود برابری می کرد. ابوذر ۲۸۱ حدیث نقل کرده که صحیح بخاری و صحیح مسلم، ۳۱ عدد از آنان را روایت کرده اند.
جستارهای وابسته [ویرایش]
Abū Dharr AlGhifari AlKinani ( أبو ذر الغفاري الكناني )Jundub ibn Junādah ibn Sufian (جُندب بن جَنادة), was the forth or fifth person converting to Islam. He belonged to the Banu Ghifar, the Kinanah tribe. No date of birth is known. He died in 652 CE, at al-Rabadha, in the desert east of Medina.
Abu Dharr is remembered for his strict piety and also his opposition to Muawiyah I during the caliph Uthman ibn Affan era. He is venerated by Shia Muslims as one of The Four Companions, early Muslims who were followers (Shi'a) of Ali (Ali ibn Abi Talib).
He was one of the Muhajirun. He was regarded by many, including Ali Shariati, as the first Islamic socialist or the first socialist altogether, having first been referred to as such by the Arab scholar Ahmad Rida in 1910.
Early life 
Little is known of his life before his conversion to Islam. Abu Dharr is said to have been a serious young man, an ascetic and a monotheist even before he converted. He was born to the Ghifar clan, found to the western south of Medina. Abu Dharr was apparently typical of the early converts to Islam, described by Ibn Shihab al-Zuhri as "young men and weak people". They were a branch of the Banu Kinanah tribe. Quraysh clan of Muhammad was also a branch of the Banu Kinanah tribe.
Popular accounts of Abu Dharr say that his tribe lived by pillaging caravans, but that he preferred to live a poor but honest life as a shepherd. Having heard the supposition that a new prophet had arisen in Mecca, Abu Dharr and his brother travelled to Mecca to find the claimed prophet. The young seeker converted instantly and rushed out to declare his new faith in front of the Kaaba, which at that time was a pagan temple. He was beaten for his presumption. He did this three days in a row, after which the Prophet Muhammed told him to return to his clan, where he taught his people about Islam. He and his tribe then joined Muhammad after the Hijra, or migration to Medina in 622 CE.
According to the early Islamic historian Tabari, Abu Dharr claimed to have been the fourth or fifth convert to Islam. However, Saad bin Abe Waqqas made the same claim. While the exact order of conversion may never be established, no one doubts that he was a very early convert.
After Muhammad's death 
According to the historian Wilferd Madelung, Abu Dharr fell into disfavor during the caliphate of Uthman Ibn Affan. Uthman was appointing his relatives as governors and giving them money from the public treasury. Abu Dharr felt that this was a betrayal of the principles of Islam.
Abu Dharr had begun his agitation in Medina after Uthman had given 500,000 dirhams to Marwan I, 300,000 to al-Harith b. al-Hakam, and 100,000 to the Medinan Zayd ibn Thabit from the khums of the booty seized in Ifriquiya in 27/647. He then quoted relevant Qur'anic passages threatening the horders (sic) of riches with hell-fire. Marwan complained to Uthman, who sent his servant Natil to warn Abu Dharr, but to no avail. Uthman displayed patience for some time until, in the presence of the caliph, Abu Dharr launched an angry verbal attack on Ka'ab al-Ahbar, who had backed Uthman's free use of public money. Uthman now chided Abu Dharr and sent him to Damascus.
Sunni view 
Many hadith, oral traditions, are traced to Abu Dharr. He is respected as an early and observant Muslim, and a man who was honest and direct to a fault. He was, according to the Sunni tradition, a rough, unlettered Beduin who held no high office, but who served the Muslim community, the Ummah, with everything he had to give.
During the caliphate of Uthman, he stayed in Damascus and witnessed Muslims deviating from Islam, going after worldly pleasures and desires.
He was saddened and repelled by this. So Uthman invited him to come to Madinah. where he was also hurt by people's pursuit of worldly goods and pleasures.
Abu Dharr then asked Uthman to go to Al-Rabathah, a small village eastern Madinah. Uthman approved his request. Abu Dharr stayed there away from people, holding on to the traditions (sunnah) of Muhammad and his companions.
A man visited him once and when he found his house almost bare, he asked Abu Dharr: "Where are your possessions?"
Abu Dharr said: "We have a house yonder (meaning the Hereafter), to which we send the best of our possessions."
The man understood what Abu Dharr meant and said: "But you must have some possessions so long as you are in this abode."
"The owner of this abode will not leave us in it," replied Abu Dharr.
Also, when the Prince (Amir) of Syria sent Abu Dharr three hundred dinars to meet his needs, he returned the money saying, "Does not the Amir find a servant more deserving of it than I?"
Abu Dharr continued in his simple life, and dedicated himself to Allah only until he died, in 32 A.H.
Shi'a view 
Aba Dharr is considered one of the greatest and most loyal sahaba, along with Salman Al-farsi, Miqdad and Ammar bin Yasser.
Imam Ali advanced to see him off. He said:
Abu Dhar, you've become very angry for Allah. The people are worried about their religion, and you are worried about your religion. So, leave what they are worried about in your hands and escape from them with what you're worried about. They're in need of what you've prevented them from. And you're in no need of what they've prevented you from. Tomorrow you'll know who will be the winner. Abu Dhar, nothing amuses you but the truth and nothing annoys you but the untruth.
Abu Dhar, his wife and his daughter went to al-Rabathah Desert. He was recalling our Master Muhammad's words: Abu Dhar, may Allah have mercy upon you. You'll live alone, die alone, rise from the dead alone and enter Paradise alone. Prophet Mohammad said about him " Aba Dhar is like Issa/Jesus (AS) of my nation in his "zohod" and "waraa"
Hadiths mentioning his virtuous status 
Muhammad is reported to have said, "Neither has the sky shaded one more truthful and honest than Abu Dharr nor has the earth had anyone walk over it like him. (In these matters) he is like Isa bin Maryam." (From Tirmidhi.)
Muhammad also said, "Abu Dharr walks on earth with the piety of Isa bin Maryam (Jesus son of Mary.)" (From Tirmidhi.)
During the Battle of Tabouk, Abu Dharr was left behind because his camel was ill or too weak. So he alighted from it and, placing the pack on his back, walked to the rest of the army. Muhammad saw him and exclaimed, "May Allah have Mercy on Abu Dharr!." He then said, "He spends his life all alone. Death will single him out and on the Day of Resurrection, he will stand up all alone!"
See also